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AMERICAN 

MUSEUM 

OF NATURAE 

HISTORY 



SCIENCE GUIDE NO. 118 
Revised Edition published by 

MAN AND NATURE PUBLICATIONS 

The American Museum of Natural History 
New York 24, N. Y. 






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Copyright 1953 by the American Museum of Natural History 




EXTERIOR OF THE THEODORE ROOSEVELT MEMORIAL BUILDING. 



CONTENTS 



NATURE — THE ENVIRONMENT OF MAN 7 

AN INTRODUCTION TO THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OF 
NATURAL HISTORY 7 

GENERAL INFORMATION 9 

ADMISSION 9 

MEMBERSHIP 9 

HOW TO REACH THE MUSEUM 11 

CHECK ROOMS AND GUEST SERVICES — INFORMATION DESKS 11 

THE AMERICAN MUSEUM SHOP 1 1 

FLOOR PLANS 11-13 

LOCATIONS OF EXHIBITS AND SERVICES 14-15 

SKETCHING AND PHOTOGRAPHING 16 

GUIDING 16 

CAFETERIAS 16 

THE LIBRARY 16 

PUBLICATIONS 17 

THE HISTORY AND WORK OF THE MUSEUM 17 

OFFICES AND LABORATORIES 19 

WORKSHOPS 20 

ENTERING THE MUSEUM 21 

EXPLORATION AND GEOGRAPHY 22 

MUSEUM HIGH SPOTS 23 

MUSEUM FACTS 24 

PUBLIC INSTRUCTION 25 

TEACHERS' COURSES 27 

NATURAL SCIENCE FOR THE LAYMAN 27 

CAMP NATURE COUNSELLOR'S COURSE 27 

STORY HOUR CLUB FOR PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN 27 

FREE MOTION PICTURE PROGRAMS 27 

INDOOR TRAILS 27 

DIVISION OF CIRCULATING EXHIBITS 27 

ADVISORY SERVICES 28 

MAKING THE EXHIBITION HALL 29 

ASTRONOMY AND THE AMERICAN MUSEUM-HAYDEN 
PLANETARIUM 35 



GEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY 41 

MINERALS AND GEMS 44 

TIME SCALE OF EARTH HISTORY 51 

FIRST FOSSIL HALL — Fishes to Early Dinosaurs 52 

SECOND FOSSIL HALL — Late Dinosaurs 59 

THIRD FOSSIL HALL — Age of Mammals 64 

FOURTH FOSSIL HALL — Age of Mammals 67 

FIFTH FOSSIL HALL — Ice Age Mammals 71 

MICROPALEONTOLOGY 74 

INVERTEBRATES 75 

THE SYNOPTIC SERIES 75 
HABITAT GROUPS 80 

INSECTS AND SPIDERS 83 

THE EXHIBITS 86 

FISHES 93 

THE EXHIBITS 93 

AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES 97 

THE EXHIBITS 99 

BIRDS 107 

THE WHITNEY WING 108 

BIRDS OF THE WORLD HALL 118 

HALL OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRD GROUPS 121 

MAMMALS 125 

THE HALL OF NORTH AMERICAN MAMMALS 125 

AKELEY MEMORIAL HALL OF AFRICAN MAMMALS 132 

VERNAY-FAUNTHORPE HALL OF SOUTH ASIATIC MAMMALS 141 

NORTH ASIATIC MAMMALS 145 

THE HALL OF OCEAN LIFE 146 

SYNOPTIC HALL OF MAMMALS 149 

MAMMALS OF NEW YORK STATE 150 

ANIMAL BEHAVIOR 151 

ANTHROPOLOGY 155 

MAN AND HIS ORIGINS 155 

HALL OF PRIMATES 155 

HALL OF THE NATURAL HISTORY OF MAN 157 

OSBORN HALL OF THE AGE OF MAN 160 

LIVING RACES OF MAN 163 

CONSERVATION AND GENERAL ECOLOGY 205 

FELIX M. WARBURG MEMORIAL HALL 207 
NORTH AMERICAN FORESTS 215 

POPULAR VERSUS SCIENTIFIC WORDS 217 

WORD LIST 219 



NATURE - 

THE ENVIRONMENT OF MAN 




AN INTRODUCTION TO 
THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

The ideal museum has been dreamed of but has not yet been built. 
The ideal museum presents, in logical order, the entire story of the 
universe, the earth, and its inhabitants, together with their total relation 
to each other. Practical limitations prevent such a museum from becom- 
ing a reality but the goal is there. 

The American Museum of Natural History works constantlv toward 
that goal. A study of the table of Contents of this General Guide will 
give the Museum visitor a key to an appreciation of its offerings in both 
a logical and a chronological order. 

Astronomy mirrors the universe and states the theories of the earth's 
origin. The hardened rocks furnish the material of geology and the 
life-forms trapped in that rock are the objects of the paleontologist's 
search. From fossils we advance to forms that are familiar today — living 
creatures without backbones, insects, fishes, reptiles, birds, and mam- 
mals — all leading to the study of man himself. 

With the growth of man from primitive savagery to what we call 
civilization, come changes in his relation to his surroundings. The first 
living thing was affected by its environment and affected it in turn. Man 



is no exception. He is one of a spe< tea <>f animals, among which he is no 
more necessary to the continuance of life than are the insects, the birds 
or the dinosaurs. His vct) existence In the future ma) depend on his 
understanding of the world in which he finds himself. 

Man is still a pari ol nature, although lu- controls much on earth. 
He is still subject to great basi< laws and forces that restrict and restrain 
him within marked boundaries. A shift in climate from marine tem- 
perate to glacial cold could wipe out the traces of man and his works 
o\er a continent. A movement of the ocean bed could send a tidal wave 
to destroy coastal towns thousands ol miles away. 

Closer to man's fate than great earth changes are the difficulties he 
makes for himself through lack of understanding of the consequences ol 
his acts. Because he- is the on!\ living organism with the powers of reason 
developed to a relatively high degree, he is able to engage in thought 
processes and actions that create in him needs and desires that were not 
shared by his early ancestors. In the satisfaction of these needs and 
desires he cuts down whole forests for his industries. He mines the soil 
and uses up resources he cannot hope to replace. He waters the desert 
and reaps his harvest. He plows the plains and sows the dust bowls. 

The Museum is aware of the urgency of the problems of soil, water. 
forest, mineral and wild life conservation and of the conservation of man 
himself. As you read through this General Guide or walk through the 
Museum halls, note the theme expressed by those who represent the main 
departments of science and of education. This idea is plain in their 
research, in their writings and in their exhibits for the public. The 
scientist-educator is concerned with the interpretation ol nature rather 
than with its mere presentation. The day ol the thousand stuffed 
animals in one long case is gone. The scientist-educator knows that man 
must see nature as a whole since he must live as a whole being within 
its framework. 

The American Museum of Natural History is one of the most wonder- 
ful places in the world. It houses the priceless objects of the earth, 
displayed in dramatic settings that amaze and delight all who come to see. 

But it is more, much more, than a treasure trove of the rare, the 
exotic, the beautiful and the unusual. It is a great teacher who can tell 
man what has gone before, what exists in the present, and what the future 
holds, depending on man's choice of direction. It would not be a great 
teacher if it did not indicate the best direction for him to take. 

The Museum should be all things to all men. It should meet the 
needs of the housewife, the farmer, the industrialist, the teacher, the 
college student, the child. Each must find, among its offerings, an answer 
to his questions, an understanding of dailv living and an appreciation of 
his own place in a highly complex and interrelated world. 

Unless museums work toward that objective, they fail in their obliga- 
tion to mankind. This museum realizes that responsibility and asks you, 
the visitor, to pass judgment on the fruits of its labors and to take some 
of those fruits with you. 

8 NATURE— THE ENVIRONMENT OF MAN 



GENERAL INFORMATION 




The American Museum of Natural History is located in Manhattan 
Square and occupies most of the space between Central Park West. 
Columbus Avenue, 77th Street, and 81st Street. The main entrances are 
on Central Park West, through the Roosevelt Memorial, at three levels: 
street, vehicle (driveway under the steps) and subway. There is also an 
entrance on West 77th Street (foot and vehicle) in the center of the block. 

The Planetarium may be entered from West 81st Street (foot and 
vehicle) and through the Museum. Cars may be parked at the curb on 
the streets surrounding the Museum Square. 

ADMISSION 

There is no charge for admission except to The American Museum — 
Hayden Planetarium. The Museum is open to the public from 10:00 
A.M. to 5:00 P.M. daily except Sundays, Thanksgiving Day, Christmas, 
New Year's Day and July 4th, when it opens from 1:00 P.M. to 5:00 P.M. 

MEMBERSHIP 

There are about 37 thousand members of the American Museum of 
Natural History who believe that the Museum is doing a useful sen ice 
to science and to education and who are contributing to this work. 
Through its explorations the Museum brings together rare and valuable 
collections from all over the world. It makes these wonders of nature 
easily available through its exhibition halls, its lectures, its work with 
school children, and its publications. The continuance and growth of 
this work is, in large measure, dependent upon the contributions of 
friends. 

The Trustees invite you to lend your support by becoming a member. 

Membership blanks may be obtained at the information desks, in 



tin American Museum Shop, 01 l>\ dropping a postcard to the Member- 
ship Secretary, I he American Museum ol Natural History, Centra] I\uk 
West .u 79th Street, New York 24, V Y. 

Memberships ma\ stari at ;m\ time. Associate. Annual. Sustaining, 
Contributing and Supporting memberships continue for a lull year's 
period from the date annual dues are paid. Life and highei (lass mem- 
berships are valid throughout the lifetime <>l the member. 

I he various classes oi membership, with the dues payable l>\ and tlu 
privileges accorded to each (lass, are as follows: 



(la 



1 >ues 



W<)( iate 


| 5 yearly 


Annual 


1.") yearly 


Sustaining 


25 yearly 


Contributing 


50 yearly 


Supporting 


lOOuarh 


Life 


300 


Associate Patron 


1 ,000 


Patron 


5,000 


Associate Benefactor 


10,000 


Associate Founder 


25.0(H) 


Benefactor 


50,000 


Founder 


100,000 



Pi i\ ileges 

1 through 5 

1 through 6 plus 

choice of 7 or 8 
1 through 8 
1 through 8 

1 through 8 
1 through 10 
1 through 10 
1 through 10 
I through 10 
1 through 10 
1 through 10 
1 through 10 



Privileges 

1. A Membership Card. 

2. A year's subscription to Natural History magazine. 

3. Fen per cent discount on all books on sale in the American 
Museum Shop. 

1. Admission to the Members' Room. 

5. A copy of the President's Annual Report on request (Life and 
higher class members receive the Annual Report automatically). 

6. Two admissions yearly to performances of the American Museum- 
1 lax den Planetarium. 

7. Admission to all Members' Lectures (10 or more annually), with 
guest tickets permitting members to invite one guest to each lecture. 

8. Admission to all Lectures in the Adventure Series !<>i children 
of members (10 or more annually), with two guest tickets for each lecture. 

9. A handsomely engraved Certificate of Membership, suitable lor 
framing. 

10. Admission to special stall functions arranged for higher class 
members. 



10 



HOW TO REACH THE MUSEUM 

r>\ lius: Eighth Avenue <>i Columbus Avenue Bus to 77tli Street. 

79th Street Crosstown Bus to 81st Street and Central 
Park West. 

By Subway: Broadway-Seventh Avenue lane to 79th Street and Broad- 
way Station (local stop). Walk two blocks east lo 
Columbus Avenue and 77th Street. 

sixth and Eighth Avenue Lines to 81st Street Station 
(local stop). 

Lexington Avenue Line to 77th Street Station (local 
stop), then Crosstown Bus from East 79th Street directly 
to 81st Street and Central Park West. 

Groups coming by bus should direct the bus driver to let them out at 
the 77th Street entrance. Busses can be parked in the area next to the 
American Museum-Hayden Planetarium. When leaving, busses should 
pick up their groups at the 77th Street entrance. 

Visitors arriving in private cars may park in the area next to the 
American Museum-Hayden Planetarium. There is room for about one 
hundred and fifty cars. 

CHECK ROOMS AND GUEST SERVICES — INFORMATION DESKS 

The main check room is on the right as one enters the main entrance 
on the first floor of the Roosevelt Memorial (driveway under the steps). 
Coats and packages may be left here. Wheel chairs are available free of 
charge. There is also a check room at the left of the 77th Street entrance. 
There is no charge for checking. 

Information desks are located on the main (second) floor of the 
Roosevelt Memorial, in the 77th Street foyer, and facing the entrance to 
the Eighth Avenue Subway. 

THE AMERICAN MUSEUM SHOP 

The entrance to the American Museum Shop is near the 77th Street 
entrance, next to the elevators. Unusual gifts from all over the world — 
authentic examples of native handicraft, pottery, masks, Indian silver 
jewelry, dolls and carved objects — are on display. Specimens for the 
shell and mineral collector are kept in stock. A representative list of 
books, covering the many fields of the natural sciences, is also available. 

FLOOR PLANS 

Pictorial plans of the Museum exhibits are posted near the elevators 
and at convenient points throughout the Museum to guide visitors to 
the various halls. Also see the next four pages. 

GENERAL INFORMATION 1 1 



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LOCATIONS OF EXHIBITS AND SERVICES 

AFRICAN MAMMALS. 2nd & 3rd Floors, Halls 13. 

AFRICAN NATIVES. 3rd Floor, Hall 8. 

AMERICAN MUSEUM-HAYDEN PLANETARIUM. 1st Floor, Hall 18. Main entrance from 

81 st St.). 
AMPHIBIANS (FOSSIL). 4th Floor, Hall 13. 
AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES (LIVING). 3rd Floor, Hall 9. 
ANTHROPOLOGY. 

African Natives: 3rd Floor, Hall 8. 
Age of Man: 4th Floor, Hall 2. 
Asiatic Natives: 3rd Floor, Hall 6. 
Biology of Man: 3rd Floor, Hall 4. 
Eskimo: 1st Floor, Hall 7a. 

Indians of North America: 1st Floor, Halls 1, 4, 6 and 8. 
Indians of Mexico & Cent. America: 2nd Floor, Hall 4. 
Indians of South America: 2nd Floor, Hall 8. 
New Zealand Natives: 4th Floor, Hall 8. 
Philippine Natives: 4th Floor, Hall 8. 
South Sea Natives: 4th Floor, Hall 6. 
Southeast Asia Natives: 4th Floor, Hall 8. 
Stone Age Culture: 2nd Floor, Hall 6. 
Tibetan Exhibit: 3rd Floor, Hall 6. 
ARCHAEOLOGY. 2nd Floor, Halls 4, 6 and 8. 
ASIATIC MAMMALS. 2nd Floor, Halls 5 and 9. 
ASIATIC NATIVES. 3rd Floor, Hall 6. 
AUDITORIUM. 1st Floor, Hall 7. 
BIRDS (FOSSIL). 1st Floor, Hall 19. 
BIRDS (LIVING). 

Biology of Birds: 1st Floor, Hall 19. 
Birds of North America: 3rd Floor, Hall 1. 
Birds of the World: 2nd Floor, Hall 2. 
Local Birds: 1st Floor, Hall 12. 
Pacific Bird Life: 2nd Floor, Hall 19. 
BUTTERFLIES. 3rd Floor, Halls 3 and 5. 
CAFETERIA. Basement, Hall 12. For teachers and children, Basement, Hall 11. See also 

Snack Bar. 
CONSERVATION. 1st Floor, Halls 3 and 5. 
CORNER GALLERY. 2nd Floor, Hall 5. 
DINOSAURS. 4th Floor, Halls 9, 12 and 13. 
DRUMMOND COLLECTION OF JADE. 4th Floor, Hall 6. 
DUPLEX HALL. 2nd Floor, Hall 11. 
ECOLOGY. 1st Floor, Hall 3 and 5. 
EDUCATION HALL. 1st Floor, Hall 11. 
ELEVATORS. Halls 2 and 12. 
ESKIMO. 1st Floor, Hall 7a. 
FISHES (FOSSIL). 4th Floor, Halls 5 and 13a. 
FISHES (LIVING). 1st Floor, Hall 9. 
FORESTS. 1st Floor, Hall 5. 
GEMS AND MINERALS. 4th Floor, Hall 4. 
GEOLOGY OF DUTCHESS COUNTY. 1st Floor, Hall 3. 

HAYDEN PLANETARIUM. 1st Floor, Hall 18. (Main entrance from 81st St.). 
INDIANS OF MEXICO & CENTRAL AMERICA. 2nd Floor, Hall 4. 
INDIANS OF NORTH AMERICA. 1st Floor, Halls 1, 4, 6 and 8. 
INDIANS OF SOUTH AMERICA. 2nd Floor, Hall 8. 
INFORMATION DESKS. Basement, Hall 12; 1st Floor, Hall 2; 

2nd Floor, Hall 12; and by all elevators, Halls 2 and 12. 
INVERTEBRATES (FOSSIL). In preparation. 

14 



INVERTEBRATES (LIVING). 1st Floor, Hall 10. 

INSECTS AND SPIDERS. 3rd Floor, Halls 3 and 5, 1st Floor, Hall 12. 

JADE, DRUMMOND COLLECTION OF. 4th Floor, Hall 6. 

LANDSCAPE HALL. 1st Floor, Hall 3. 

LECTURE AND MEETING ROOMS. 

Auditorium: 1st Floor, Hall 7 

Duplex Hall: 2nd Floor, Hall 11. 

Portrait Room: 2nd Floor, Hall 12. 

Room 129: 1st Floor, Hall 12. 

Room 319: 3rd Floor, Hall 12. 

Room 419: 4th Floor, Hall 12. 

Room 426: 4th Floor, Hall 12. 

Roosevelt Lecture Room: 5th Floor, Hall 12. 

Sportsmen's Library: 2nd Floor, Hall 12. 
LIBRARY. 5th Floor, Hall 2. 

MAMMALS (FOSSIL). 4th Floor, Halls 2, 3 and 5. 
MAMMALS (LIVING). 

African: 2nd and 3rd Floors, Hall 13. 

Asiatic: 2nd Floor, Halls 5 and 9. 

Biology of Mammals: 3rd Floor, Hall 3. 

Hall of Ocean Life: 1st Floor, Hall 10. 

New York State: 1st Floor, Hall 12. 

North American: 1st Floor, Hall 13. 

Primates: 3rd Floor, Hall 2. 
MAN. 

Age of: 4th Floor, Hall 2. 

Biology of: 3rd Floor, Hall 4. 

Origin of: 4th Floor, Hall 2; 3rd Floor, Hall 4. 
MEXICAN & CENTRAL AMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGY. 2nd Floor, Hall 4. 
MINERALS AND GEMS. 4th Floor, Hall 4. 
MONTANA, MEN OF THE. 2nd Floor, Hall 3. 
MUSEUM SHOP. 1st Floor, Hall 2b. 
NEW ZEALAND NATIVES. 4th Floor, Hall 8. 
NORTH AMERICAN MAMMALS. 1st Floor, Hall 13 
OCEAN LIFE, HALL OF. 1st Floor, Hall 10. 
PACIFIC BIRD LIFE. 2nd Floor, Hall 19. 
PHILIPPINE NATIVES. 4th Floor, Hall 8. 

PLANETARIUM. 1st Floor, Hall 18. (Main entrance from 81st St.). 
PLANT COMMUNITIES. 1st Floor, Halls 3 and 5. 
POLAR EXPLORATION. 1st Floor, Hall 2. 
PRIMATES. 3rd Floor, Hall 2. 

PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 3rd Floor, Hall 11. (And Basement). 
REPTILES (FOSSIL). 4th Floor, Halls 5, 9, 1 2 and 13. 
REPTILES (LIVING). 3rd Floor, Hall 9; 1st Floor, Hall 12. 
SCHOOL SERVICE. 3rd and 4th Floors, Hall 11. (And Basement). 
SHOP. 1st Floor, Hall 2b. 
SNACK BAR. 2nd Floor, Hall 2. 

SOUTH AMERICAN INDIANS & ARCHAEOLOGY. 2nd Floor, Hall 8. 
SOUTH SEA NATIVES. 4th Floor, Hall 6. 
SOUTHEAST ASIA NATIVES. 4th Floor, Hall 8 
SPIDERS. 3rd Floor, Hall 5. 
SUBWAY. Basement, Hall 12. 

THEODORE ROOSEVELT MEMORABILIA. 2nd Floor, Hall 12. 
THEODORE ROOSEVELT MEMORIAL. 1st to 5th Floors, Hall 12. 
TIBETAN EXHIBIT. 3rd Floor, Hall 6. 
WHALE MODEL (LIFE SIZE). 3rd Floor, Hall 3. 



GENERAL INFORMATION 15 



SKETCHING AND PHOTOGRAPHING 
Chans loi artists and students who wish to draw from exhibits may 
be had by asking the nearest attendant. Amateui photographers may get 
permission from an\ information desk to take pictures in the Museum 
halls. Professional photographers ma) gel permission from the Division 
<>l Photography. The use <>l ;i tripod and careful exposure with a light 
metei is recommended for most Museum photography. 

GUIDING 
Free Guiding Service: In addition to the regularl) scheduled educa- 
tional programs of the Department of Public Instruction, free guiding 
is given to Members of the Museum and their friends, upon presentation 
of Members' tickets. An appointment should be made at least two 
weeks in advance, stating the day and hour desired, the number to be 
guided and any special exhibits to be seen. 

Paid Guiding Service: This is available for non-members ol the 

Museum according to the following schedule: 

1-1 persons minimum charge $2 per hour 

4-9 persons $2 per hour plus 50^ each addition;! 1 

person up to and including 9 persons 

10-30 persons J5 per hour 

30-60 persons S10 per hour (services of 2 Museum 

instructors) 

60-90 persons SI 5 per hour (services of 3 Museum 

instrtictors) 

Guiding is available on weekdays after 2 P.M. There is no guiding 
on Saturdays, Sundays and holidays. For appointments call TRafalgar 
3-1300, Extension 255. 

CAFETERIAS 

The Main Cafeteria is convenient to the subway entrance in the 
Roosevelt Memorial. It is open from 11:30 A.M. to 4:30 P.M. daily 
and from 1 :()() P.M. to 4:30 P.M. on Sundays. It is closed on the following 
holidays: Christmas Day, New Year's Day and Thanksgiving Day. 

On Saturdays, Sundays and holidays, except those mentioned above, 
the Auxiliary Cafeteria on the second floor, above the 77th Street 
Entrance, is open as a snack bar from 1:30 P.M. to 4:30 P.M. 

THE LIBRARY 

The Library is on the fifth floor of the Museum. It is devoted to 
works on natural science, exploration and travel and contains some 
145,000 volumes which comprise not only the important periodicals of 
our own and foreign countries but also all representative and standard 
works on zoology, physical anthropology, ethnology, pre-history, archae- 

16 



ology, geology, and paleontology. I he collection on vertebrate paleon- 
tology forms the Osborn Library ol Vertebrate Paleontology, Eounded 
l>\ President Henry Fairfield Osborn. 

The Reading Room of the Library is open to the public Erom 10:00 
A.M. until 4:00 P.M., except on Sundays and holidays. The Library is 
also closed on Saturdays from [une to September. Those interested in 
consulting books and periodicals are welcome to do so during the avail- 
able hours. 

PUBLICATIONS 

The publications of the American Museum fall into two groups: 

technical and popular. 

The technical publications, comprising the Bulletin, Anthropological 

Papers, Memoirs and American Museum Novitates, contain information 
gathered by the various expeditions or derived from the study of material 
collected. The Bulletin contains the larger scientific papers, covering 
records of exploration and collections of the Museum. The Anthro- 
pological Papers are devoted to researches in the study of man, supervised 
by the Museum's Department of Anthropology. The Memoirs, quarto 
in size, contain monographs, many of which require large illustrations. 
The Novitates include the shorter scientific contributions, descriptions 
of species, etc., which demand immediate publication. The scientific 
publications are distributed to libraries of scientific institutions and 
societies throughout the world, largely on an exchange basis. Inquiries 
may be directed to Editor — Scientific Publications. 

The popular publications include Natural History magazine, Junior 
Natural History (a children's magazine), and Man and Nature Publica- 
tions. The purpose of all these publications is to give the public accurate 
and interesting information in all fields of natural science. 

Man and Nature Publications deal with exhibits of particular interest 
and with the many natural science fields, edited for reading by the 
Layman. More than 140 of these booklets, guides and leaflets have been 
issued and new ones are constantly in preparation. The Handbooks, 
fifteen of which have been issued, deal with themes related to the 
collections and are frequently used as textbooks. 

A catalogue of the popular publications of The American Museum of 
Natural History will be sent free on request. (Address: Man and Nature 
Publications, The American Museum of Natural History, Central Park 
West at 79th Street, New York 24, N. Y.) 

An Annual Report is issued yearly. 

THE HISTORY AND WORK OF THE MUSEUM 

The American Museum of Natural History was founded and incor- 
porated in 1869 for the purpose of establishing a Museum and Library 
of Natural History; of encouraging and developing the study of Natural 
Science; of advancing the general knowledge of kindred subjects and 
of furnishing popular instruction. For eight years its home was in the 
Arsenal in Central Park. 

GENERAL INFORMATION 17 



I lie cornerstone of the presenl building in Manhattan Square was 
laid in is; I b) President Ulysses S. Grant. In 1877, the first section 
(South Central Wing) was completed and on December 22nd, 1877. 
it was formally opened l>\ President Rutherford B. Hayes. 

I he educational work with the schools was begun in 1880 In Pro- 
fesso] Ubei I Bi< kmore. 




THE MUSEUMS FIRST UNIT, COMPLETED IN 1877. 



The Museum building is one of the largest municipal structures in 
the City of New York. The South Facade is 710 feet in length and the 
present East Facade, on Central Park West, is 600 feet. When completed, 
the building is designed to occupy all of Manhattan Square. 

The building is largely erected and maintained b\ the Cit\. through 
the Department of Parks. The Roosevelt Memorial section was the gift 
to the City by the State of New York as its monument to Theodore 
Roosevelt. The Whitney Wing was built jointly by the late Harry Payne 
Whitney and the City of Xew York. The American Museum-Hayden 
Planetarium was financed by funds loaned by the Reconstruction Finance 
Corporation of the Federal government. The annual Ch\ appropriation, 
known as the Maintenance Fund, is devoted to the care and upkeep of the 
building and the safeguarding of the collections. 

18 



The Museum is under the control of .1 self-perpetuating Board of 
rrustees, which gives its services. 

The scientific and educational work is carried on l>\ twelve depart- 
ments, each headed l>\ a Chairman or Curator, under the leadership 
of the Director. 

rhe Funds through which specimens are purchased, exhibits made. 
explorations carried on and scientific investigations conducted are 
contributed by the Trustees, members and other friends. The scientific 
and popular publications ol the Museum and the- enlargement of the 
Library are also made possible through these contributions. 

For the benefit of the public, the halls of the Museum are given 
over to the large series of exhibits which are partially described in this 
guide book. These are supplemented by lectures and publications of a 
popular nature. Special motion picture showings are given on Wednes- 
day and Saturday afternoons except from June through September. An 
important course of evening lectures is given every Spring and Fall for 
the members, also Saturday morning courses of special lectures for 
children of members. All lectures are illustrated by motion pictures or 
Kodachrome slides, many of which have been taken on Museum expedi- 
tions. Two auditoriums within the Museum are in use for public 
showings — the Main Auditorium on the first floor and the Roosevelt 
Lecture Room on the fifth floor of the Roosevelt Memorial. 

OFFICES AND LABORATORIES 

The fifth floor of the Museum houses administrative offices, work 
rooms and the laboratories of most of the Scientific Departments. On 
this floor are the work rooms of the Department of Vertebrate Paleon- 
tology, where the skeletons of fossil animals are prepared and mounted 
and the beautiful models of invertebrates are made. These, like the 
other laboratories, are, of necessity, not open to the public. 

On the sixth floor of the African section are the well-equipped 
laboratories devoted to experimental biological research and to physi- 
ology and life histories based on the study of living animals. 

Most of the scientific study collections are on the fifth floor. These 
are for the benefit of investigators and to preserve the evidences and 
records of our vanishing animal life and the lives and customs of primitive 
peoples. 

The vast majority of the Museum's natural science specimens is in 
study collections to protect them from damage and for ready use by 
scientific investigators. A careful selection is made of objects of greatest 
educational value and these form the basis of the Museum displays in its 
exhibition halls. 

The Lerner Marine Laboratory 

The Lerner Marine Laboratory was established in 1947 by Mr. 
Michael Lerner to further field studies in marine biology through the 

GENERAL INFORMATION 19 



Department <>l Fishes and Aquatic Biology. Located on the island of 
Bimini, almost sixt} miles due east ol Miami. Florida, the laboratory 
o((iij)ics about two and one-third acres on which are the laborator) 
building, ;i residence foi workers, a storehouse and a power house. 

I In- laborator) building contains four laboratories, a study, two 
combined aquarium and lab rooms, an animal room, ;i refrigeratoi room, 
.1 constant temperature room and a photographic dark room. Glass 
bottomed boats, diving equipment, seines and nets and other facilities 
are available for researchers. A limited numbei ol applications are 
accepted yearl) b) the Museum for workers who wish to use the labora- 

tOl J la< ililies. 

Genetics Laboratory 

Another laboratory within the Museum is engaging in experiments 
on the hereditar) patterns ol tropical fish, the results of which are being 
used to determine the influence ol heredity in cancer. 

Fish-raising enthusiasts, familiar with the problems ol cross-breeding 
Mexican platyfish and common swordtails, know that the spotted hybrids 
often develop tumors. Experiments have been going on for over twenty- 
five years to find the source of these tumors. 

When two pure strains of the platy were bred — one with black 
pigmented spots and the other unspotted — the first-generation platyfish 
would neces aril) be spotted. The spotted pattern is a dominant trait 
and the unspotted pattern recessive. The black spots are inherited in 
accordance with Mendel's law of heredity. A cross-bred hybrid from 
an unspotted platy of the second generation and an unspotted swordtail 
is unspotted and normal. 

When a spotted platy is crossed with an unspotted swordtail, the 
hybrids have tumors identified as black cancer or melanoma. The find- 
ings show that the swordtails carry dominant modifying genes which 
interact with the blackspot-carrying genes of the platy, so that the black 
cells of the hybrid develop cancer. 

The next experiments were made with one species, the platy. and 
proved that black cancer in fish is hereditary. The facts derived from 
such experiments are being used to determine a possible basis for control 
of those types of cancer that are inherited in man. 

The laboratory for this research is housed in the American Museum 
and is directed by the geneticist of the New York Zoological Society and 
supported by a grant from the National Cancer Institute of the U. S. 
Public Health Service. 

WORKSHOPS 

An important part of the Museum not seen by the public are the 
workshops in the basement of the building. Provided with machinery 
of the latest pattern, workmen make the various types of cases used. 
build and repair the Museum's furniture and make required installa- 
tions for the exhibition halls. 

20 GENERAL INFORMATION 



ENTERING THE MUSEUM 

Fifty-eight halls <>l the Museum are now open to public exhibition, 
rhe visitor begins his trip through this immense treasure house <>i 
natural science from one oi three directions: through the Rooseveli 
Memorial (page 3), through the American Museum-Hayden Planetarium 
(page 8), or through tin- South, or 77th Street Entrance. 

The Theodore Roosevelt Memorial 

The rheodore Rooseveli Memorial forms the main entrance to the 
Museum on Central Park West. lis graceful architecture follows a stately 
Romanesque design. 

The facade of the Memorial is set oil by four Ionic columns 54 feel 
high, representing Boone. Audubon, Clark and Lewis, pioneers in the 
earl} exploration of our country. A massive equestrian bronze of Mho 
dore Roosevelt by J. E. Fraiser, stands before the entrance arch. On 
either side of him stand an American Indian and an African native. 

Passing through the central archway, the visitor stands in the great 
Memorial Hall. Above the marble mosaic floor, walls of cream-colored 
marble and limestone rise to an elaborate Corinthian cornice over-arched 
by an octagonal coffered barrel-vault 100 feet above the floor. The 



THE THEODORE ROOSEVELT MEMORIAL HALL. 




centra] part <>l each wall is recessed and divided into three parts by two 
Roman Corinthian columns 18 feet high supporting the entablature. 
I luce ol these recesses are adorned with great mural paintings symbolic 
of the varied career of Theodore Roosevelt. On the wall, quotations 
From his writings are given in bronze letters. 

I he I heodore Roosevelt Memorial was erected l>\ the people ol the 
State ol New York in liiemon of the man whose name it bears. 

South Entrance Archway 

Under the arch on 77th Street, before entering the Museum doorway, 
may be seen the Bench Mark established by the United States Geological 
Suiw'v in 1911, on which are inscribed the latitude and Longitude, 
40°46'17.17" N., 73°58'41" W. and height above sea level, 86 feet. 

On tin- right is a GLACIAL POT HOLE from Russell, St. Lawrence 
County, \. Y., formed by an eddy in a stream beneath the melting ice 
of the glacier that once covered northern New York State. Pebbles, 
whirling around the eddy, cut and ground this hole which is two feet 
across and lour feet deep. 

GLACIAL GROOVES. On the left is a large slab of fossil-bearing 
limestone from Kelly Island in Lake Erie, near Sandusky, whose surface 
has been smoothed, grooved, and scratched by the stones and sand in 
the bottom of the vast moving ice sheet that covered northeastern North 
America during the Glacial Epoch. 

On either side of the archway are the two largest beryl crystals ever 
quarried. They were cut in Albany, Maine. These six-sided crystals 
show the typical aquamarine color in their clearest portions. 

Memorial Hall 

Memorial Hall is entered through the lobby from the South En- 
trance. In this hall are placed temporary exhibits of current interest. 
Many of these exhibits represent research in various departments of the 
Museum and recent results of exploration by Museum expeditions. 

EXPLORATION AND GEOGRAPHY 

Exhibits showing equipment of polar expeditions made in coopera- 
tion with the Museum are located in the corridor leading to the elevators. 

Here are sledges with which PEARY (1909) and AMUNDSEN (1911) 
reached the North and South Poles respectivelv; also souvenirs of the 
AMUNDSEN-ELLSWORTH expeditions of 1925 and 1926. Maps of the 
Polar Regions show the routes of various explorers and the polar air 
flights. 



22 GENERAL INFORMATION 



MUSEUM HIGH SPOTS 




RARE AND EXTINCT BIRDS - including reconstruction of the Dodo 
and a skeleton of the Mammoth Moa — in the Leonard C. Sanford 
Hall of the Biology of Birds, 1st floor. 

MOA — reconstruction of this giant extinct bird, New Zealand .Moa 
group — Whitney Memorial Hall of South Pacific Birds, 2nd floor. 

ALASKA BROWN BEAR - largest bear in the world - Hall of North 
American Mammals, 1st floor. 

"AN OCTOBER AFTERNOON NEAR STISSING MOUNTAIN" - 

strikingly realistic habitat group of the Pine Plains area of Dutchess 
County, N. Y. — Felix M. Warburg Memorial Hall, 1st floor. 

METEORITES — one of the world's largest meteorites: the Ahnighito — 
36i/2 tons — brought from Greenland in 1897 by Admiral Peary — 
American Museum-Hayden Planetarium, 1st floor. 

DROP OF WATER — magnified a million times — depicted in a blown- 
glass model — Hall of Living Invertebrates — Gallery of the Hall of 
Ocean Life, 1st floor. 

MEN OF THE MONTANA - the story of life in a Peruvian Rain Forest 
— authentic, recorded sound effects — Special Exhibition Hall, 2nd floor. 

23 



II I I IK DIOMI 1)1 WD BIO DIOMEDE islands in Bering Strait - 
Inici national Boundary Line passes between them. Big Diomede is 
Russian. Little Diomede Vmerican South Sea Birds, 2nd floor. 

AFRICAN llll'HWI HERD-Akelej African Hall, 2nd floor. 

s I ONE 111 \D OF OLMEC S I \ 1.1 Mexican and Central American 
Hall. 2nd floor. 

I 111. "COPPER MAN \ll\l\n ^ND SHRUNKEN HEADS - South 

\ni( i i( an Indian I [all, 2nd floor. 

M<) I lis AND BUTTERFLIES - from all parts ol the world - Insect 
Hall, 3rd floor. 

DRAGON LIZARDS OF KOMODO - the world's largest living lizards 
-Reptile Hall, 3rd floor. 

IVORY COLLECTION - African Ethnology Hall, 3rd floor. 

TYRANNOSAURUS REX - king ol dinosaurs - Cretaceous Dinosaur 
Hall, 4th floor. 

BRON I OSAURUS — great plant-eating dinosaur — dinosaur foot- 
prints — Brontosaur Hall, 4th floor. 

DINOSAUR EGGS -- 60 MILLION YEARS OLD - from the Gobi 
Desert — Cretaceous Dinosaur Hall, 4th floor. 

TOPAZ CRYSTAL - 600 POUNDS - largest in the world - Morgan 
Hall of Minerals and Gems, 4th floor. 

WILD DOG GROUP -a hunting pack of African wild dogs looking 
across the plains — Akeley African Hall gallery, 3rd floor. 



MUSEUM FACTS 

The gross area ol the American Museum is approximately 40 acres; of 
this, 23 acres arc open to the public. 

i, 022, 000 square feet of floor must be cleaned. It takes 125 men to do 
the job. 

Electric mopping machines soap the floor, scrub it. rinse it and dry it. 

One mopping machine does the work of eight men. 

There are 58 halls open to the public, with a total of 2,302 exhibit cases. 

The average exhibit case contains ()8 square feel ol glass. If all the glass 
in all the cases were spread out flat, it would cover an area of 3i/9 acres. 

It takes two nun to change the 31.000 light bulbs in use in the Museum. 

The Museum contains 348 rooms, including offices, shops, meeting places, 
work looms and laboratories. 

24 MUSEUM HIGH SPOTS 



PUBLIC INSTRUCTION 



■:\';.> v 




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The week-day visitor to the American Museum will see eager groups 
of children standing with an instructor before various exhibits. Some 
of these groups may be classes with their own teachers but most of them 
will be part of the Department of Public Instruction's "World We Live 
In" program, designed for children of elementary school grades. Subjects 
or "themes" have been cooperatively planned with the school authorities. 

The program, scheduled for each school day from 10:00 A.M. to 
2:00 P.M., gives the children a complete day in the Museum, with sub- 
jects and teaching aimed at helping them to a more meaningful under- 
standing of the world in which they live. 

This is done with motion pictures, lessons in the halls, question and 
answer periods, physical demonstrations of principles or facts to be 
stressed and the actual handling of objects of natural science interest. 
If a group is studying Pan-America, for example, the children watch 
movies about Mexico, listen to Mexican music and even wear Mexican 
costumes and take part in dancing. 

Special attention is given to classes or groups of children with visual 
and other physical handicaps. For full information, write or phone the 
Registrar, Department of Public Instruction, The American Museum 
of Natural History, New York 24, N. Y., Telephone, TRafalgar 3-1300, 
Extension 255. 



25 



LITTLE BOY WITH SWORDFISH. 



SCHOOL CLASSES VISITING THE MUSEUM. Cooperating with the school authorities, 
the Museum offers a planned, full-day teaching program for school classes. The 
scene below, in the Museum's auditorium, shows a part of this program. 



-i & WB 


■ ' I vlJgsS^ 

Hi " l^n 







TEACHERS' COURSES 

Each semester as man} as five different courses for teachers-in-service 
are offered l>\ the Department, rhese courses, designed to improve th< 
educational us<.- ol Museum resources l>\ ( it\ teachers, are accredited l>\ 
the College ol the Citj ol New Vork and Hunter College and are 
approved In-Service courses <>l the Superintendent ol Schools. For lull 
information, write the Registrar. 

NATURAL SCIENCE FOR THE LAYMAN 
This course is given each semester and is a series ol field trips to 
nearb) localities, it gives adults a chance to become acquainted with 
plant and animal life and the important Man-Nature relationships. 
Service charge for the course is $1.00 per nip lot non-Members and $.75 
lor Museum Members. For complete information, write or phone Miss 
Farida A. Wiley, Department of Public Instruction. 

CAMP NATURE COUNSELLOR'S COURSE 

This course is given each spring to increase the efficiency of group 
nature work in summer camps. Service charge is SI 0.00. Write or phone 
the Registrar. 

STORY HOUR CLUB FOR PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN 

The Story Hour Club, offered several times each year, introduces 
pre-school children from 3i/9 to 5 years of age to natural science and 
museums. Visits to exhibition halls are held in conjunction with the 
telling of stories concerned with natural science. The service charge is 
S5.00 per series of ten story-hour sessions. For further information write 
or phone Miss Marguerite Ross. Department of Public Instruction. 

FREE MOTION PICTURE PROGRAMS 

Museum visitors are invited to attend free motion picture programs 
on natural science subjects. The Wednesday series runs throughout 
the year and begins at 3:30 P.M. The Saturday series is from October 
to May and begins at 2:00 P.M. 

INDOOR TRAILS 

Young visitors may get more than twelve different Indoor Trails at 
information desks. These question-and-answer games, to be played in 
the halls, are well-illustrated and contain much accurate scientific in- 
formation. The Trails, pencil included, are for sale at a modest price. 
Answers may be checked at the information desks. 

DIVISION OF CIRCULATING EXHIBITS 

This collection of educational exhibits and specimens in the held 
of natural science is carried to schools for classroom use. Materials are 

PUBLIC INSTRUCTION 27 



selected in meet subjecl requirements In science, social studies and re- 
lated subjects. A fleet ol Museum ti ik ks set \ ic es the sc 1 tools on a regular 
schedule. Foi lull information, write or phone the Supervisor of Cir- 
culating Exhibits 

ADVISORY SERVICES 

On request, the Department provides advisory services on the educa- 
tional use ol museum resources. A model Nature Room is kept for the 
benefit of interested persons who wish to start one of their own in the 
classroom or in a small museum. This room is not open to the general 
public but ma) he seen, on advance request, on schoolday afternoons, 
alter 2:00 P.M. 

From a one-man lecture service, begun in 1884 by Albert S. Bickmore, 
the Department has expanded until over 10,000,000 persons are reached 
each year by its programs and services. 



28 PUBLIC INSTRUCTION 



MAKING THE EXHIBITION HALL 



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The construction of the beautiful exhibits in The American Museum 
of Natural History is, in itself, as interesting as the viewing of them by 
the more than two million persons who visit the Museum annually. At 
the request of many visitors, we have included in the General Guide just 
what goes on before an exhibition hall is open to the public. 

We will take the Felix M. Warburg Memorial Hall as an example. 
This hall depicts an area from early ages to the present, with all the 
interrelationships of environment, plant, animal and human life. Its 
method of presentation is a radical departure from the hitherto accepted 
method of museum exhibition. 

First, the basic idea of the Hall is outlined in synopsis form. It is 
the complete story which the Hall will convey that the scientists think 
ought to be included in it, together with the emphasis they want made 
in the displays. 

A committee of the Director, Board members, scientists and educa- 
tional advisers studies the synopsis and passes on it. A lively discussion 
determines what can be added to make the exhibition as valuable as 
possible. The committee also decides on the location of the new Hall. 

After the idea and the location are approved, the synopsis is analyzed 
from a display angle and the Assistant Director for Program Administra- 
tion, together with his designers, draws up plans for the exhibits which 
are then submitted to the Director and his committee for approval. When 
the necessary funds are found, the work begins. 

Metal workers, masons, electricians, carpenters and painters build 
the structures that will house the habitat groups, dioramas, models and 

29 



other kinds <>l display and the Department ol Exhibition is working on 

the exhibits themselves. 

\n you entei the Warburg Memorial Hall from the 77th Street Foyer, 
you will note .1 large, eye-catching exhibit entitled "An October After- 
noon Neai Stissing Mountain." It shows the brilliant autumn coloring 
typical ol this region, togethei with some animals found there. As an 
example ol the building ol the larger group, let us see how it was made. 

Using sketches and Kodachromes made at the scene, the artist roughs 
out his picture on the curved background. Because there are no corners, 
the visitoi is given a feeling ol depth, perspective and reality that is 
not possible with a Hat painted surface. After the sketch is rendered in 
charcoal, the artisi fixes it with a shellac spray. Then, with fine oil 
pigments, he paints in the background of the group. He may emplo\ as 
man) as thirteen shades of blue in painting a sky from the horizon to 
the zenith. 

One of the artist's difficult jobs is to make it appear as though the 
foreground objects continue into the vertical background. You will 
notice that he places clumps of red-leaved sumac against the background, 
then paints more sumac as though it grew beyond the real plants. When 
his careful color-matching and artistry are finished, the visitor has trouble 
telling where the foreground ends and the painted background begins. 

If vou look at the foreground, you will see that it is not fiat, but 
rolling, as is the natural conformation of the land at this particular site 
near Stissing Mountain. This foreground, or terrain, is made by first 
determining the character of the actual ground, then cutting wooden 
forms or contours to match it. These forms are then covered with heaw 
wire netting, then burlap and plaster-of-paris, strong enough to hold up 
the weight of the men who are working on the group. This foreground 
is the foundation for the earth, plant and animal life in the exhibit. 







ARTIST AT WORK 
ON BACKGROUND. 
Preliminary charcoal 
drawing. 



While construction work and background painting are going ( >n, the 
Departmeni oi Exhibition has been making accessories, exhibits, models 
and special effects foi the Hall. Accessories include artificial leaves and 
Rowers, trees, hushes, manufactured rocks, fruits, ho lies, preserved 

plants and mosses. At the same lime, prepaiatois are tanning skins, 
getting them read) to he mounted. 

Some plants can he used ;is the\ grow in nature. Members ol the pine 
family, mosses, and grasses ate soaked in a solution ol formaldehyde and 
glycerine. The glycerine prevents the plant from drying out and keeps it 
pliable. The formaldehyde preserves the material, but because it also 
tends to lade natural colors, the technicians must bring hack the original 
hue by spraying with an air brush and lacquer of the right shade. 

Clumps ol grass are mounted on plaster-ol-pai is bases and sprayed 
with lacquer il the natural color is desired. In the group you ma\ see 
some of this grass, each bunch standing close to the next, with earth 
patted down between the bases. 

Most leaves are made by tracing the leal pattern on a thick pad of 
crepe paper. The pattern is cut out with a fine-toothed band saw. Hun- 
dreds of leaves are turned out at one time by this method. An order 
ma) call for as many as ten thousand leaves. Each leaf must be handled 
separately after being cut out, as veins must be drawn or embossed, 
insect holes simulated and color applied to match the original. Even the 
midribs, of iron wire, are carefully tapered by dipping bundles of wire 
into nitric acid. The dripping-down of the acid thins the wires toward 
their ends. 

Flowers may be molded from thin sheets of cellulose acetate, a non- 
inflammable plastic material. The acetate sheets are "limped" in a 
solution of acetone, placed in the mold where they take form, are 
removed, trimmed and delicately painted by hand. Even the tiniest 
pistils and stamens are painstakingly made so that the flowers will be 
as botanically accurate as possible. 

There are no artificial rocks in "An October Afternoon Near Stissing 
Mountain." Artificial rocks are used when the real ones would be too 
heavy. Samples of real rocks and photographs of them help the technician 
to copy nature. He makes his rocks from wire netting, burlap, plaster- 
ol-paris, papier mache and coloring materials. Should he be required 
to produce a "wet" rock, he runs shellac or varnish down the side and 
lets it dry. 

In the "October Afternoon" group, you can see a red fox looking at 
a bluejay sitting in a canoe birch. The fox and the bird, as well as other 
small animals shown in the Hall, are mounted by putting their skins 
on artificial bodies made of wrapped excelsior. 

There are no animals in the Warburg Memorial Hall that are 
mounted on hollow manikins. But this is such an interesting process that 
we have included it in our description. First, it must be understood 
that the Museum animals are not stuffed. The larger ones are mounted 

MAKING THE EXHIBITION HALL 31 



on manikins, similar to those human forms found in the show windows 
Ol New Yoi k shops. 

The manikin is begun 1>\ putting the animal's bones together on a 
wood ind wii< Framework in the natural position desired, then patting 
sculptor's < la\ ovei the whole assembly. A statue is modelled b\ the 
sculptor, who is an expert animal anatomist Making the statue is a 
long lask and when the ;ntist goes home at night or over the weekend, 
he wraps his work in woolen blankets, soaked with water. This keeps 
the (la\ fresh and impressionable. The statue is made as though the 
animal had just lost its skin — that is, the muscles, tendons, prominent 
veins and ribs are shaped In the claj so that they will show under the 
tanned skin when it is fitted to the manikin. 

When the statue is finished and the skin has been tried on for size, 
the sculptor makes a plaster cast of it. When the cast is taken off. it is 
lined with overlapping strips ol burlap. This rough fabric is coated with 
liquid plastei-ol-paris. about as heavy as cream. When the plaster 
hardens in the burlap lining, the "shell" is removed, braced, put together, 




TANNING A 
MAMMAL SKIN. 



FITTING 

TANNED SKIN 

OVER MALE 

MULE DEER 

MANIKIN. 




coated with a pre servativ e and is now a manikin, waiting for the animal's 
skin. 

Fitting the skin to the manikin is a delicate process. An adhesive is 
placed on the under side of the skin as it goes on the manikin. The skin 
is sewed up with needle and thread. The stitches do not show because 
they are on the under side. 

To make sure that all the muscles, veins, ribs and hollows are promi- 
nent, the technician drives hundreds of small nails or pins through the 
skin into the manikin, to keep the skin tight around key points. When 
the adhesive is "set" in two or three days, the nails or pins are taken out. 
The animal now seems to have rippling muscles, his ribs show as they 
should, and even veins in his muzzle are as plain as they would be in a 
living specimen. 

Good examples of such large mounts may be found in the Giant 
Eland Group or the Giant Sable Group in the Akeley African Hall on 
the second floor. 

Now our background is painted, the terrain is covered with plants, 
the animals have been placed and the "October Afternoon Near Stissing 
Mountain" is complete. But the Department of Exhibition has been 
busy making many more displays for the Hall, other than the accessories 
for "An October Afternoon." 

It has made farm buildings, farm machinery, small dioramas and 
cut-outs, mirrorscopes through which the visitor sees a remarkably 
realistic presentation of landscapes in many aspects, soil profiles, scientific 
models of root systems, apple blossoms, the hind leg of a bee with its 
pollen basket, the life history of the codling moth that attacks apples, 
studies of photosynthesis and respiration for the "Cycle of Nutrition 



MAKING THE EXHIBITION HALL 33 



;iihI Decay" and man) othei displays and models requiring scientific 
;i((ii!.K\ and infinite attention to detail and exact coloration. 

I he groups, displays and models ha\e been (lucked l)\ the Scientific 

Departments concerned. Geolog) advised how the mountains looked 
during various time periods, as shown in the displays "Geological Histoi \ 
and Structure." 1 he Department ol Conservation advised on " I he Water 
Cycle," "Soils and Soil Conservation," and "Life in the Soil." 

Paleontology (lucked the accuracy of dioramas and objects that 
show the prehistoric plants and animals that lived in this place many 
thousands ol years ago. 

I he Bird and Mammal Departments saw to it that the blnejay, the 
fox, the chipmunks, muskrat and other animals in the Hall were care- 
fully installed in authentic positions and relationships. 

The Department of Insects and Spiders supervised the placement of 
dragonflies, butterflies and beetles, to be found in "An October Alter- 
nooii." "From Field to Lake," and "Cycle of Nutrition and Decay." 

I lu- Department of Amphibians and Reptiles and the Department 
of Fishes worked with the technicians and the preparators to insure the 
accuracy of the use of turtles, trout, catfish, perch and pickerel shown 
in "From Field to Lake." 

The Department of Anthropology made its recommendations as to 
the best way to show man's part in this environmental exhibition. It 
checked on house and farm styles, tools, machinery, and agricultural 
methods ol the various times depicted. All Scientific Departments con- 
cerned in the Hall helped in the writing of labels and other informative 
material. 

At last the Felix M. Warburg Memorial Hall is completed. Into it 
has gone much of the Museum's time, money, talent and effort. The 
Director, Board members, advisory committees, the Scientific Staff, archi- 
tects, exhibition personnel, artists, preparators, tanners, technicians, 
metal workers, masons, carpenters, painters, bookkeepers, public relations 
people, photographers, attendants — all have given of the best that is in 
them to make an exhibition hall of lasting beauty, scientific accuracx 
and educational importance. 

For a description of these exhibits see the chapter entitled ECOLOGY 
AND CONSERVATION. 



34 MAKING THE EXHIBITION HALL 



ASTRONOMY AND THE 
AMERICAN MUSEUM- 
HAYDEN PLANETARIUM 



t 




The American Museum-Hayden Planetarium, adjoining the Roose- 
velt Memorial, with its main entrance on 81st Street and Central Park 
West, constitutes the Museum's Department ol Astronomy. Since the 
complete story of natural science begins with the story of the universe, 
it is fitting that the Planetarium's description begin the General Guide. 

The establishment of the Planetarium in 1935 marked the culmina- 
tion of a ten-year effort to secure for The American Museum of Natural 
History a planetarium projector. This complicated piece of precision 
equipment was developed for visual education and entertainment by 
the firm of Carl Zeiss at Jena, Germany, to present the fascinating and 
ever-changing drama of the skies. 

In 1933 the Trustees of the American Museum formed a separate 
corporation under the Reconstruction Finance Corporation to construct 
and equip a planetarium. Mr. Charles Hayden, after whom the building 
is named, donated both the projection instrument and the Copernican 
planetarium on the first floor. 

The high spot of the Planetarium is the great Zeiss projector, installed 
in a hemispherical dome 75 feet in diameter. The main body of the 
instrument is 12 feet long, with a large globe at either end containing 
projectors that show the fixed stars of the northern and southern sky 
on the inner surface of the dome. Individual projectors for the sun, 
moon and five naked-eye planets are mounted in the latticed cylinder 
that supports these globes. 

Each of the large star globes contains sixteen separate lens systems 
in which are incorporated copper foil plates with holes of various sizes 

35 



for st. us ol different magnitudes, so thai a central light source causes 
the stai images to appear on the clonic 1 hese fit together in such a wa) 
;is to reproduce the constellations exactly .is seen in the real sk\ under 
ideal weathei conditions. These projectors reveal images ol all the fixed 
Stars visible to the unaided e\e from an\ part ol the earth. Each of the 
thirty-two stai field projectors is also provided with ;i device which auto- 
matically ellipses the star images when the) are In-low the horizon. 

I he projector also contains special instruments lor projecting the 
Milk) Way, comets, important variable stais and the various reference 
c in les used h\ the astronomer in describing the positions and motions ol 
the celestial bodies. 

The main projector turns independently on any one ol three axes. 
First, it ma\ turn on an axis parallel with the polar axis of the earth. 
This simulates the apparent westward motion ol the heavenly bodies 
due to the earth's rotation. 

Second, it ma\ rotate on an axis perpendicular to the plane on which 
the earth itself moves around the sun. The effect ol this is to swing the 
north pole of the heavens around a circle that is completed every 25,800 
years. This motion, known to the astronomer as "precession," introduces 
a long period of change in the sk\ picture. By its use, the- Planetarium 
lecturer can set the instrument back some 5,000 years to 3,000 B.C. when 
Alpha Draconis, a dim star in the constellation ol the Dragon, was our 
North Star. Or. by running the instrument ahead some 1 2.000 years, we 
see Vega marking the north pole of the heavens and the Southern Cross 
visible from the latitude of New York. 

Third, the instrument may also be turned about an east-west axis to 
simulate the change that occurs in the sky picture as one changes latitude 



MAIN ENTRANCE TO AMERICAN MUSEUM — HAYDEN PLANETARIUM. 





THE ZEISS PROJECTOR OF THE PLANETARIUM. 

on the earth. Thus, it ma) show the sky as seen from the North Pole, 
or, traveling south, one may see the Magellanic Clouds or the Southern 
Cross. Use of this motion enables the lecturer to carry his audience 
around the world in about five minutes. 

The motions of the sun. moon and planets are effected through a 
complex arrangement of motors and gears so that they may be set in 
any position relative to the stars for any date and hour for many centuries 
backward or forward in time. This so-called annual motion also sets the 
moon at its proper phase for any given time. 

The dome itself, upon which the stars are seen, is made of perforated 
steel, painted white on the inside, enclosed in an outer shell of copper. 
Under this great dome, the lecturer, with a complicated series of buttons, 
dials and switches to control, and with over two thousand possible com- 
binations at his command, is virtuallv master of the universe. 



ASTRONOMY AND THE AMERICAN MUSEUM— HAYDEN PLANETARIUM 37 



\ mere physical description <>l this amazingly complex instrumeni 
docs not do justice to the breath-taking effect oi ;» Planetarium showing. 

I o the visitor, it seems as il the walls ol the greal domed room have 
disappeared, revealing the verj depth and feeling ol a star-studded sky 
as the unclouded nighi slowly [alls. 

I Ik Planetarium projectoi does not bring the entire sweep ol tin 
sk\ stoi\ to the audience. Supplementary effects and techniques are 
constantly developed to widen the range ol action. Horizon scenes, a 
rocket-ship interior, a swirling snow storm, eclipses, the radiance ol 
northern lights, thunderstorms and ;• host ol accessor) effects are created. 
When combined with controlled lighting, music and special sound 
effects, the result is what has frequently been (ailed the most dramatic 
of theatre productions. 

Almost hall a million persons visit the Planetarium each year to see 
such performances as "Rocket to the Moon," " 1 he Beginning and the 
End of the World," "Color in the Sky," "The Conquest ol Space," "Des- 
tination Saturn" and the Christinas show, "The Star of Bethlehem." 
There is usually a change of show theme on the first day ol each month 
and demonstrations at scheduled times during the afternoons and eve- 
nings ol every day in the year. 

The Hall of the Sun is on the first floor. Suspended from the ceiling 
of this circular room, known as the Copernican Room, is a 48-foot model 
of the solar system in which the naked-eye planets are seen moving 
about the sun at their proper relative positions and speeds. 

On the walls of this room are the constellations of the Zodiac whose 
stars, in luminous paint, seem to scintillate against the deep blue back- 
ground of the night sky. 

The actual demonstration begins in this room with a preliminary 
talk preparing the audience for the "sky show" in the dome on the second 
Moor. The floor of the Hall of the Sun is enriched bv a reproduction in 
terrazzo of the Aztec Calendar Stone. It was made by Victor Foscato 
and symbolizes the sun which was to the Aztecs the most important ol 
the heavenly bodies. 

A line collection of astronomical paintings hangs on the Planetarium 
walls. Opposite the main entrance on the first floor the visitor sees a 
large mural painting and two panels by Charles R. Knight, depicting 
many of the sky legends and myths of the American Indian. On the ] 
second floor are the astronomical paintings of the late Howard Russell 
Butler of Princeton. Perhaps his most striking canvases are the three 
eclipse subjects shown over the southeast entrance to the dome. They 
are lighted bv a method devised bv Mr. Butler which makes them appear 
as realistic transparencies rather than as opaque paintings. The first 
represents the eclipse of June 8, 1918, observed at Baker. Oregon; the 
second, that of September 10, 1923, at Lompoc, California; and the third, 
that of January 24, 1925, at Middletown, Connecticut. 

38 



Next to the eclipse paintings are seven large canvases <>l the hydrogen 
prominences on the sun, Two bizarre prominences, known as the "Eagle" 
and the "Heliosaurus," arc shown. The latter's resemblance to a dinosaur 
suggested its name. 

The Planetarium houses two of the world's finest meteorites: the 
Ahnighito, 36y£ tons, and the Willamette, l5i/£ tons. 

In the first floor corridor is an Outstanding loan collection of 
sundials, compasses and astronomical instruments, covering a range 
from ancient Chinese instruments, through the elaborate metal instru- 
ments made in the middle centuries in France and in Germany, down 
to the very accurate compasses oi modern navigation. 

On the walls of the second floor ma\ be seen large transparencies on 
glass, consisting of astronomical photographs from various observatories 
throughout the world. These include pictures of the sun and the moon, 
the planets, star-fields and star-clusters, gaseous, planetary and spiral 
nebulae, comets, meteors and meteor craters. Since many of them are 
time exposures, they reveal the celestial objects far better than they can 
be seen visually through the largest telescopes and show much detail 
that would otherwise escape the eye. 

A striking exhibit of astronomical phenomena, painted in lumines- 
cent color activated by "black light," is in the corridor on the first 
floor. These fourteen murals, covering an area of 4,000 square feet, 
show in vivid detail such subjects as sun-spot activity, the Aurora Borealis, 
solar prominences, eclipses of the sun and the moon, galactic nebulae 
and our neighboring worlds, the planets. 

Tvpical of the three-dimensional effect created by this recently de- 
veloped technique is the mural of the Aurora Borealis. A curtain-type 
aurora is seen from the Arctic Circle where such displays reach their 
greatest brilliancy and color. Through moving light sources, the mural 
seems to shimmer as actual Northern Lights do. 

Many of the wall cases have been given over to dioramas of the 
interior of the Mount Wilson Observatory, showing the 100-inch Hooker 



TWO OF THE PLANETARIUM'S "BLACK LIGHT" MURALS, 
total eclipse of the Sun; right, the Planet Saturn. 



Left, corona observed during 





ASTRONOMY AND THE AMERICAN MUSEUM— HAYDEN PLANETARIUM 



39 



Reflector; the 18th-century observatory at Jaipur, India; the ancient 
observatory at Peking, China; and Sir [$aa< Newton's discovery that 
sunlight is composed <>l the colors of the spectrum. Another group of 
dioramas neai the exit to the Roosevelt Memorial shows the various 
phases ol weather, explaining such phenomena as the- formation of rain, 
the action of a cold front and the mechanics oi a hurricane. 

Of constant interest to \isimis are semi-permanent exhibits, as "The 
I ime Capsule/' "Your Weight on Other Worlds" and the "World 
Clock." Supplementary exhibits also include contemporary paintings, 
special blow-up photographs, models, maps, charts, books and instru- 
ments. 

The combination of Planetarium projector and dome is ideal for 
instructional purposes and unique courses for laymen are given during 
the fall and spring seasons. Six courses in astronomy and navigation are 
oil tied to the public, with sessions held once a week during the evening 
hours. Special school-group showings provide supplementary back- 
ground for studies in astronomy. Other instructed groups include W< st 
Point Cadets, U. S. Power Squadron units, engineering classes from nearby 
colleges, Scout groups and a variety of visiting convention groups. The 
Planetarium is also available for special lectures at hours when there 
are no regular performances. 

The Book Corner is located near the main entrance to the Plane- 
tarium on the first floor. Here visitors may receive expert help in the 
choice of publications on astronomy, star identification, navigation and 
meteorology. Also available are seasonal star-charts, star-atlases, revolv- 
ing star-finders, post cards, prints, astronomical gadgets, pamphlets, 
children's books designed to stimulate their interest in star-gazing and 
the "Sky Reporter," a monthly bulletin describing the current Planeta- 
rium demonstration, with sky maps and interesting information about 
celestial events. 

Planetarium staff members are frequently called upon for explana- 
tions and advice about various astronomical, navigational, and meteorlog- 
ical problems. With the recent heightened public interest in skv 
phenomena, the Planetarium serves as a clearing house for information 
to the public via the press, radio and television. 

Thus, by well-integrated programs and active participation in school 
and community functions, the American Museum-Havden Planetarium 
carries out its major purpose — that of helping the public to interpret 
for itself the vast body of scientific knowledge about astronomy and the 
allied sciences in terms of its own need and desire to understand the 
universe. 



40 ASTRONOMY AND THE AMERICAN MUSEUM— HAYDEN PLANETARIUM 



GEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY 



77>^^ "«^*i> 




Geology is the study of the earth in its present condition and as it 
was in past ages, back to the time of its origin as a planet. It is con- 
cerned with the materials composing the minerals and rocks of the 
earth and with the forces that have shaped these rocks into mountains, 
hills, valleys, lakes, oceans and all other land forms that are so familiar 
to us. It deals with the sequence of rocks as they were formed on the 
earth, with the history of the earth as revealed by rock sequences and 
by the fossilized remains of life contained within the rocks. Finally, it is 
concerned with the history of life on the earth as shown by the study 
of fossils. 

Thus, the inclusive science of geology is made up of varied separate 
sciences and these are often given distinct names, such as mineralogy for 
the study of minerals, petrology for the study of rocks, physiography or 
geomorphology for the study of land forms, structural geology for the 
study of earth structure, stratigraphy for the study of layered rocks, and 
paleontology for the study of ancient life on the earth. 

The Department of Geology and Paleontology at The American 
Museum of Natural History is interested primarily with the two divisions 
of geology that are based mainly on Museum collections — paleontology 
and mineralogy — although other aspects of the sciences are given some 
attention. But since the work of the Museum is based to a large degree 
on specimens, it is in those fields of geology where specimens — fossils 
and minerals — are of particular importance that the work of the De- 
partment is concentrated. 

The Museum has one of the great mineral collections of the world, 
and this collection is being studied and increased. The large fossil 

41 



collections are subdivided into several categories, cadi under the care 
and direction of one 01 more authorities in his special field, assisted b\ 
technicians. Thus there is a collection ol invertebrates, one of fishes, 
one <>l amphibians and reptiles, and one ol mammals. Muse collections 
form the core around which are built comprehensive programs of re- 
search, field si in lies, collecting activities, and exhibits. 1 bus, the exhibits 
are one <>1 the end results ol extended scientific work and it is only 
through active prosecution ol basu studies upon collections and new 
materials that the exhibits are kept authoritative and up to date. 

At the present time, the exhibits of this Department are being revised. 
Model n exhibits of geology and fossil invertebi ates are planned for future 
installation. 

Scientific Work of the Department of Geology and Paleontology 

The scientific work of the Department is concentrated, at the present 
time, largely in the field of paleontology. Several programs of explora- 
tion and research are being carried forward, with the result that the 
collections of the Museum are being augmented and valuable new hi- 
bernation is being published in technical papers, monographs, books 
and popular articles. 

On death and burial, plant remains, and the shells and hard skeletons 
of mollusks, crustaceans and other invertebrates, are readily fossilized 
and preserved in the rocks. Indeed, many rock strata are largely com- 
posed of these fossil remains. Invertebrate remains are especially abun- 
dant in rocks that were formed as sediments in ancient seas which, at 
various times, covered almost all of the globe. Because of this abundance, 
invertebrate fossils occupy a favored place in deciphering the history of 
the earth and in the practical service of man. 

The fossil invertebrates of each geologic epoch are distinctive, so 
that, in general, they serve as the principal standards for the classifica- 
tion and dating of rock strata, especially those of marine origin. This 
is of great practical importance in mining, quarrying and in the search 
for petroleum. Happenings in the development of the earth are referred 
to a standard geologic time scale which was founded on the paleonto- 
logical record, especially that of the invertebrate fossils. The evolutionary 
history of these animals goes back more than a half billion years, to the 
Proterozoic era, well before the advent of the vertebrates and the land 
plants. 

Very small invertebrate fossils, such as the skeletons of protozoans, 
are very commonly brought to the surface as oil wells are drilled, furnish- 
ing needed information on the relative position of each formation 
that is being penetrated, thus, in (act, guiding the drilling activity. 

An active program of research in invertebrate paleontology, involving 
laboratory studies and field expeditions to various parts of the world, 
is being maintained. Studies in recent vears have emphasized the im- 
portant contribution that fossil invertebrates make in understanding 
ecological conditions of past seas early in geologic time. Recent investi- 

42 




<■*->< 



V> V \igf* 



TRILOBITES. Primitive crustaceans called trilobites were abundant in the early 
Paleozoic seas. These specimens (Dalmanites) were found in the Devonian rocks of 
New York State. 



gations have centered around marine fossils of Permian age in South 
America and western Texas. Extended studies have been made of fossil 
organic reels and their enclosed fossils in the Permian rocks of western 
Texas. This program includes comparative studies of modern coral reefs 
in the Bahama Islands and the South Pacific. 

The fossil remains of animals with backbones are first found in rocks 
of Ordovician age, and they continue throughout the fossil record from 
that time until the present. These fossils record the evolutionary history 
of the vertebrates beginning with the fishes and ranging through the 
amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. Since the vertebrates have 
lived in many environments, their fossils are found in rocks formed from 
continental fresh-water sediments as well as from marine sediments. 

Like the fossil invertebrates, the fossil vertebrates can be used for 
dating the rocks in which they occur, and in this respect they are of 
particular importance in the study of continental sediments, in which 
fossil invertebrates generally are not numerous. 

The research program in fossil fishes currently involves the study of 
various groups of higher bony ray-finned fishes from the age of Dinosaurs 
and the early part of the Age of Mammals. One of the aims of this work 
is to obtain information on the history and relationships of the modern 
bony fishes. The Museum's fossil fish collection, which is one of the 
best of its kind, has an important role in these studies, and it is being 
improved constantly by Museum expeditions, exchanges with other in- 
stitutions and gifts from all parts of the world. 

GEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY 43 



The present research program on fossil amphibians and reptiles 
emphasizes the stud) ol I riassit reptiles from various parts of the world. 
The pin pose nl this resean I) schedule is to make known the animals that 
lived just before and during the earl) stages oi the Age of Dinosaurs, 
a critical time in the evolution of reptiles. Extensive explorations have 
been carried on and collections made in the southwestern United States 
since the war, and much new material has been unearthed. In addition, 
field studies have been made in certain Foreign countries. 

In the field of fossil mammals, work is directed especially toward the 
collection and stud\ ol the primitive mammals that lived during earl) 
Tertiar) times and of the advanced mammals that inhabited North 
America during the final phases ol the Cenozoic era. Active collecting 
programs are being followed in the southwestern part ol the United 
States lot earl) rertiary mammals, and in various sections ol the west 
lor the later mammals of the Cenozoic. Many fossils and new faunas 
have been found, to expand greatly our knowledge of the mammals that 
lived on the earth in former days. Much research is also being done on 
ancient South American mammals and on other problems of the evolu- 
tion of this dominant group oi animals. 

All of this work on fossils reconstructs the history of life. It adds to 
our record of animals through time, and gives much new evidence lot 
the interpretation of evolution. In addition, the research that is being 
(airied on at this Museum is concerned with the former distribution 
and association of animals in the world, and the bearing that such 
information has upon the past relationships of continents and the historx 
of climates. 

1 he history of life helps us to understand the origin, nature and 
destiny of man. Paleontology, as studied at this Museum, is concerned 
with concepts, and of these the concept of evolution is one of the most 
vital in our modern world. Xo single idea has revolutionized thought in 
modern times so much as the theory of organic evolution. And, in the 
study of evolution, the evidence and interpretation of fossils is of the 
utmost importance. 

MINERALS AND GEMS 

Minerals are nature's chemicals, and mineralogists have been able 
to recognize over 1700 different species. THE MORGAN HALL OF 
MINERALS AND GEMS is one of the outstanding collections of these 
minerals in America and, in fact, in the world today. Displayed here are 
main rare and unusual specimens, some of particular beauty. With few 
exceptions all of the known minerals are represented in this collection. 
Some minerals are so rare that only single examples exist, while many 
are so common that thev are present almost everywhere in the earth's 
( nisi. 

A study of the earth's crust shows that it consists of different kinds 
of rocks, a few of which have familiar names such as granite, marble, 
sandstone and slate. We see these rocks around us every day; they 



OPALIZED WOOD. Opal is often found 
as the replacing material in fossil or 
petrified wood. Petrified wood is 
formed by ground water dissolving 
the woody matter from trees and 
simultaneously depositing silica. The 
fine texture of the original material 
has been preserved in this specimen 
from Lincoln County, Idaho. 



\ 




form our mountains and canyons, and many of our buildings. On closer 
examination it is found that each rock is composed of individual sub- 
stances which we call minerals. For example, a handful of sand from the 
seashore can be separated into various kinds of grains, and these grains 
frequently represent a variety of minerals. Each has definite properties 
of hardness, density, luster, color and transparency. These different kinds 
of substances, then, which nature has used to make up sand and the other 
materials of the earth's crust are called minerals. All of the various 
minerals may be classified on the basis of their chemical composition as 
shown in the accompanying table. 

The primary task of the mineralogist is to understand the physical, 
chemical and historical aspects of the earth's crust. The science of 
mineralogy is, therefore, an integrated field of study related to geology 
on the one hand, and to physics and chemistry on the other. What does 
a professional mineralogist do? For example, if he wants to study a 
new mineral deposit, he first must have an understanding of the geologic 
setting in which the minerals are found, and he gains this by examining 
and mapping the rock formations in the field. Without this knowledge 
it would be impossible to speculate intelligently as to the origin of the 
deposit. Next, each mineral must be identified in the laboratory. Some 
minerals may be determined by inspection, whereas others yield their 
identity only through chemical tests or the measurement of optical con- 
stants by microscopic means, or in other ways. At times, the mineralogist 
may make x-ray diffraction patterns of his minerals, since a crystalline 
substance will give a regular pattern recorded on photographic film when 
subjected to x-rays. The intensity and positions of these lines are charac- 
teristic for each crystalline substance. He may, in addition, employ tools 
borrowed from the chemist and physicist, such as differential thermal 
analysis in which he subjects the mineral to a gradual rise in tempera- 
ture, and observes the characteristic chemical changes which take place. 



GEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY 45 



Or he ma) use spectrographs measurements which are useful in detect- 
ing iinimi elements which might tx unnoticed 1>\ the usual qualitative 
chemical procedures. \lni all <>i the minerals ol a deposit have been 
identified, the sequence of deposition can be worked out. Once this is 
known, the mineralogist can speculate as to the origin of the minerals 
.iikI the nature ol the conditions that gave rise to them. 

Ml ol the knowledge thai the mam mineralogists have gained after 
years ol patieni observation and stud) have been arranged in systematic 
form, and make up the science ol mineralogy which nia\ be outlined 
as follows. 

Crystallography — An important branch ol mineralogy which is con- 
cerned with the internal arrangement ol atoms and the external geo- 
metric forms exhibited b\ minerals. 

Physical mineralogy —This includes a consideration ol the various physi- 
cal properties stub as hardness, cleavage, color, specific gravity, magnet- 
ism, electrical properties, tenacity, as well as optical properties. 

Chemical mineralogy — The various chemical properties, and also the 
origin and formation ol minerals are considered. This includes chemical 
analysis, spectrographic techniques, x-ray fluorescence, and thermal 
analysis. 

Descriptive mineralogy — Tim is a systematic listing of the various 
crystallographic, physical and chemical properties of minerals, and some- 
thing of the environments in which they are found. 

Determinative mineralogy — A classification of minerals based on physical 
properties and chemical composition which facilitates identification. 

Mineral substances and products are indispensable to the welfare, 
health and standard of living of modern man, and are among the most 
valued and jealously guarded of the natural resources of a nation. The 
outstanding characteristic of the industrial era in which we live is the 
wide application of machinery and the use of power. In the last analysis 




QUARTZ. This large crystal from St. Gotthard, Switzerland, has 
smaller crystals of quartz growing on its surface. Many minerals 
occur as inclusions in quartz, and in this case actinolite needles 
penetrate the quartz. 



STIBNITE. Stibnite is a sulfide of the semi- 
metallic substance known as antimony. The 
slender orthorhombic prisms are made up 
of many crystals joined parallel to each 
other. The mineral is the chief source from 
which antimony is obtained. The specimen 
illustrated came from Inyo, Japan. 




the significance of this civilization lies in the substitution of power 
machiner) for animal muscle. This includes everything that has come 
to our generation through the steam engine, dynamo, automobile, air- 
plane and telephone. The inventions have brought about the use of 
minerals in an ever-increasing quantity, and an ever-widening application. 
Thus, as industrial techniques have become more complex, minerals that 
contain metals with peculiarly distinctive properties such as aluminum, 
vanadium, tungsten, molybdenum, chromium, cobalt and nickel (pre- 
viously of interest only in the laboratory) have assumed real economic 
importance. For example, platinum, in addition to its use in jewelry, 
is a necessary catalyst in sulphuric acid making, and acts as a key which 
unlocks a cheap process of chemical synthesis. Antimony is essential 
to the production of clear printing type metal, and mercury is a key 
metal in precise scientific instruments. All of the common materials 
used in modern building, such as steel, cement, brick, glass and plaster 
have their origin in minerals. The world demands more food, and as a 
result the phosphates, potash and nitrates bulk large in the commodities 
of commerce. 

The methods of the mineralogist are used every day to solve practical 
problems such as the manufacture of abrasives, ceramics, refractories, 
synthetic crystals and steel. Mineralogy is an everyday tool with the 
mining geologist and should be for the prospector in order that he may 
identify properly the minerals which he finds. He must also know 
something of certain mineral associations, which are so characteristic 
that they may be important leads to the presence of others. Mineralogy 
has been of direct help in military operations. 

Recently, the search for and study of radioactive minerals has become 
of great interest to mineralogists since these minerals form the basis for 

GEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY 47 



future atomic energy. Clays arc being investigated as a possible guide 
for the location ol mineral deposits. Surprisingl) enough, mineralogists 
an- being ol help to medical science. Since many parts ol our l)ocl\ con- 
tain crystalline substances similar to minerals, they are capable of being 
studied l>\ mineralogical techniques. 

I HE MORG \\ MEMORIAL HALL OF MINERALS AND GEMS 
is. in general, an anged ac c ording to the chemical classification of minerals 
shown on the accompanying table. Specimens from all these ^loups are 
exhibited. The wall panel assemblage is a key exhibit to the large and 
moie detailed collection in the Hat cases occupying the remaindei ol the 
loom, with the exception of the center aisle, which contains particularly 
line- specimens of gem minerals. As one progresses around the room. 
beginning with Panel A (at the left of the entrance) containing the native 
elements, it is evident that many of the minerals form regular solids with 
smooth laces which are characteristic ol each mineral species. These' 
regular forms are called crystals and are the external result ol the un- 
hampered growth and arrangement of the minute internal particles called 
atoms. The collection also has a number of fine wooden crystal models 
available lor study. The recently acquired gold specimens from the 
William Boyce Thompson Collection are excellent examples of the 
crystallization of the native element gold. The sulphur crystals in Panel 
A are another good example of crystallization. Well developed crystals 
of the important iron mineral, hematite, are displayed in Panel M. 
There are several rare crystals of barite, one of the sulfates, and a barium 
mineral, in Panel A A. 

Certain minerals among the many hundreds of different species are 
of particular value and we call them gems, because they appeal to our 
sense of beauty. The qualifications which make minerals gems include 
beauty of color, a certain degree of transparency that permits the color 
qualities to be developed by cutting and polishing, and sufficient hard- 
ness to preserve them against wear. In addition, the value of gems is 
governed largely by their rarity, together with a fluctuating unknown 
dictated by fashion. 

The Morgan Collection contains several outstanding gems, including 
the De Long Star Ruby, and the "Star of India," the largest star sapphire 
in the world. There are also notable diamond crystals, as well as glass 
models of the world's famous diamonds, both in the natural state and 
after cutting. Several fine specimens of chrysoberyl are in the collection. 
Occasionally, this aluminate of beryllium contains hair-like inclusions 
arranged in parallel bundles, and when cut and polished is known as 
"oriental cat's eye." The specimen from Kandy, Ceylon, is thought to 
be one of the world's finest. 

Two cases illustrating the geology and minerals of New York State 
are exhibited on the first floor of the Roosevelt Memorial. The char- 
acteristic minerals together with the localities are indicated. 

48 GEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY 



KUNZITE. Kunzite is the clear lilac to pink- 
colored variety of spodumene. Crystals of 
kunzite are usually prismatic and flat. The 
locality from which this crystal and many 
gems come is Pala, San Diego County, 
California. 





SILVER. This illustration shows a beautiful 
reticulated group of silver crystals from 
Kongsberg, Norway, a locality which has 
produced magnificent specimens of crystal- 
lized wire silver. Silver can be told from 
other silver-appearing minerals by its mal- 
leable nature, its silver-white color on a 
fresh surface, and its high specific gravity. 



BARITE. These tabular crystals of barite on 
dolomite have come from Frizington, Cum- 
berland, England. Barite, the chief source 
of barium, is used largely in the paint in- 
dustry and to a lesser extent as a filler in 
paper and cloth, in cosmetics, and for 
barium meals in medical radiology. 




Table of the Chemical Classification of Minerals 

Elements About 20 elements in an uncombined form are found as 

mine). ils. .Hid are said to occui in the native state. 
I xample, gold, \u 

Sulfides These minerals consist principally of combinations of the 
\.n ions metals su< h as copper and lead with sulfur, selenium, or tellurium. 
I lie majority ol the metallic ore minerals are in this (lass. 
Example, galena, PbS 

Sulfosalts Minerals composed of lead, copper, or silvei combined with 
sulfur and antimony, arsenic, or bismuth are included in this (lass. 
I xample, enargite, Cu s AsS 4 

Oxides a. Anhydrous oxides. The minerals of this (lass contain a 
metal in combination with oxygen. 
Example, hematite, Fe 2 O a 

I). Hydrous oxides. The mineral oxides that contain water or the 
hydroxy] (OH) as an important radical are included in this class. 
Example, diaspore, A1 2 3 .H 2 

Halides — This class includes the chlorides, fluorides, bromides, and 
iodides. 

Example, fluorite, CaF L , 

Carbonates — The minerals whose formulas include the carbonate radical, 
C0 3 , are in this group. 
Example, calcite, CaC0 3 

Nitrates — The minerals in this class can be considered salts of nitric 

acid and contain the N0 3 radical. 

Example, niter, KN0 3 

Iiorates — The borates are salts of boric acid. 

Example, borax, Na 2 B 4 O 7 .10H 2 O 

Phosphates — Minerals whose formulas include the phosphate radical, 
P0 4 , comprise this group. 
Example, apatite, Ca,, (F,C1) (P0 4 ) 3 

Sulfates — Minerals whose formulas include the sulfate radical, SC) 4 are 
in this class. 

Example, barite, BaS0 4 

Tungstates — The few minerals whose formulas include the tungstate 
radical, W0 4 , comprise this group. 
Example, scheelite, CaW0 4 

Silicates — The minerals included in this group form the largest class 
among minerals. They contain various elements, the most common of 
w r hich are sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, aluminum, and iron, 
in combination with silicon and oxygen. 
Example, quartz, SiO L > 

50 GEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY 



TIME SCALE OF EARTH HISTORY 



ERAS 



Z Q 

22 

°0 



PERIODS 



DOMINANT 
ANIMAL LIFE 



10 
20 
30 
40 
50 
60 
70 
60 
90 
100 



150 



Quaternary 



CENOZOIC 

70 MILLION 

YEARS 
DURATION 



70 



Tertiary 



Recent 
Pleistocene 



Man 



Pliocene 

Miocene 

Oligocene 

Eocene 

Paleocene 




Mammals 



50 



MESOZOIC 

120 MILLION 
YEARS 

DURATION 



35 



35 



Cretaceous 



Jurassic 



Triassic 




Dinosaurs 



200 



250 



300 



500 



25 



20 



30 



65 



PALEOZOIC 

350 MILLION 

YEARS 

DURATION 



35 



75 



90 



Permian 



Pennsylvanian 



Mississippian 



Devonian 



Silurian 



Ordovician 



Cambrian 



Primitive Reptiles 



'S^e** 




Amphibians 



Fishes 




3 2 



PROTEROZOIC 



ARCHAEOZOIC 



o 



1500 MILLION YEARS 
DURATION 



BEGINNINGS OF LIFE 



Only during the last 500,000,000 years have plants and animals produced hard parts 
capable of being fossilized. Here is a simplified chart of that quarter of the earth's history. 



FIRST FOSSIL HALL — Fishes to Early Dinosaurs 
Fossil Fish Alcove 

rhe known hisioi\ ol the fishes covers ;i time span o\ about 400 
million \r.iiv During this long interval four main groups or classes of 
fishes were evolved, rhe Insi group, called ostracoderms, were jawless 
and had well developed hon\ armor. The) were the ancestors of the 
living lampreys and hagfishes. Some time during the Silurian period, 
the ostracoderms gave rise to the second major category, the placoderms, 
which were the Inst fishes with jaws. The placoderms c\olved into a 
numbei oi distinct types, most of them with heavy, bom armor and 
mobile, paired 1ms. They were the first rulers of the Devonian lakes and 

M .IS. 

The sharks and their relatives comprise the next main group of fishes. 
I he\ evolved from primitive placoderms, probably in the Silurian, 

although the earliest remains of sharks are found in Devonian deposits. 
Earl} sharks and sharklike forms were numerous and varied during the 

Carboniferous or Coal Age. The group declined in the Permian and 
Triassic periods, becoming more successful again in the Jurassic with 
the rise of the types living today. 

The fourth class includes all the higher bony fishes. This large and 
varied assemblage likewise had a placoderm origin, probably during tin 
Silurian period. At the time of their Inst appearance in the fossil record, 
the bony fishes were already separable into two subclasses: the ray-finned 
forms that evolved into the common fishes ot today, and the fishes with 
internal nostrils. The ray-finned types separated into numerous evolu- 
tionary lines before the Mesozoic era or Age of Dinosaurs. The fishes 
with internal nostrils included the crossoptervgiaiis and the dipnoans or 
lungfish. These earliest lung breathers were particularly numerous dur- 
ing the Devonian period. The crossoptervgiaiis are of great interest 
since they gave rise to the first land-living vertebrates. Thev are repre- 
sented toda\ b\ a single form, a fish called Latimeria, which lives in the 
coastal waters of South Africa. The lungfishes, once widely distributed, 
have persisted to the present time in South America, Africa and 
Australia. 

The history of the fishes, as briefly summarized above, is illustrated 
in a series of simplified, synoptic exhibits in the Fossil Fish Alcove which 
is located at the west or far end of the First Fossil Hall. The visitor 
should walk in a counterclockwise direction within the Alcove when ex- 
amining these exhibits, beginning with the lamih tree of the fishes which 
is 10 the right of the Alcove entrance. 

Suspended above the entrance to the Alcove are the restored jaws 
of a Miocene fossil shark (Carcharodon megalodon). The plaster jaws 
are modeled after those of a living relative and thev support the actual 
fossil teeth. This giant shark, which is closelv related to the modern 
white-shark or man-eater, attained an estimated length of 46 feet. 

52 GEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY 




First land-dwelhng vertebrates 



Lobe-fmned fishes 




Primitive 



FAMILY TREE OF THE MAJOR GROUPS OF FISHES. 



Inside the Mcove, is a simplified family tree <>l all the major groups 
ol fishes discussed in the introductory paragraphs. It illustrates in graphic 
form the complexity ol fish evolution and points out the relationships 
and classification <>l the majoi groups. II the visitor is interested in the 
details ol fish evolution, it may prove helpful to refer to this tree from 
time to time while examining the other exhibits in order to note the 
relationship ol a particular group to the others. 

Moving from right to left, the next exhibit is devoted to the oldest 
known vertebrates, the jawless fishes oi ostracoderms. Typical examples 
of these ancient, armored forms are reconstructed in the models, while 
the (in outs show some details of structure and variation in the form ol 
the head armor. The ostracoderms include both bottom-dwellers and 
more active swimmers. In the left hall ol the same case are examples 
ol the (nst jawed fishes, the placoderms. They existed in great variety 
during the Devonian period. The acanthodians were the most generalized 
types and the) lasted into the Permian period. The others, which became 
extinct at the end of the Devonian, developed a variety of body shapes 
and elaborations of the bony armor. Coccosteus and his larger relative 
Dinichthys were predators; Bothriolepis and such types as Lnnaspis 
were bottom-feeders. An actual skull of Dinichthys from Devonian beds 
near Cleveland is exhibited in a separate case. On the wall above the 
fire exit is a model of Dinichthys in the act of overtaking some primitive 
Devonian sharks (Cladoselache). 

The next case on the left illustrates the long history of the sharks 
and their distant relatives the chimaeroids or ratfishes. Because the 
shark skeleton is made of cartilage, which disintegrates rapidly, it is 



A TRIASSIC RAY-FINNED FISH. Sem/onofus was a probable ancestor of the modern 
gars. 







54 











A GIANT CRETACEOUS TELEOST FISH. Portheus lived in a large inland sea that cov- 
ered much of central North America in late Cretaceous time. This specimen was 
discovered in the chalk beds of western Kansas. 



rarely fossilized. Under exceptional conditions, however, shark skeletons 
were preserved, and in one Devonian form (Cladoselache) even some 
muscle and kidney tissue was fossilized. Shark teeth, by contrast, are 
anion" the commonest of vertebrate fossils. Examples of the main types 
of teeth are displayed in this case. Fossil chimaeroids are known mostly 
from their teeth. The Paleozoic forms, called bradyodonts, had their 
teeth arranged as crushing plates and presumably they were mollusk 
eaters. The skull and some parts of the skeleton are preserved in the 
Carboniferous Helodns. The later chimaeroids, leading to the living 
marine Chimaera, are represented mostly by dental plates and spines. 

The diorama represents a middle Devonian underwater lake scene 
about 300 million years ago. The fishes that swam in this lake are now 
preserved as fossils in the flagstones around Achanarras, Scotland, where 
they occur in considerable abundance. The models show the fishes as 
they appeared in life, although their coloring is, of course, hypothetical. 
The various types of fishes that lived together in this ancient lake — 
placoderms, primitive ray-finned forms, crossopterygians and lungfish 
—make up the fossil fish fauna of the Achanarras deposit. The vegeta- 
tion, a simple aquatic plant or alga and submerged stems of the earliest 
land plants, also existed in middle Devonian time. 

The exhibit to the right of the fire exit outlines the complex history 
of the bony ray-finned fishes or actinopterygians. This large and diverse 
group is usually divided into three subgroups which actually represent 
broad, successive stages of specialization. These subgroups are termed 
the chondrostean, holostean and teleostean, typified by the sturgeon, the 
gar and the perch. The primitive chondrosteans, of which the Devonian 
Cheirolepis is a good example, developed a number of evolutionary 
lines that independently reached the holostean level. Thus, such holos- 
teans as the modern gar and bowfin (Amia) had a separate ancestry 
beginning some time late in the Paleozoic era. The teleosts, including 
the great majority of living fishes (herring, catfish, perch, halibut, etc.) 

GEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY 55 



probably arose from a single ancestral stock in the furassi< period. Since 
t liit t time the) have had an explosive evolution; there are more families 
ol teleosts than in all the othei majot groups ol fishes put together. On 
the wall above the shark exhibit is the fossil skeleton ol a large Cretaceous 
teleost, Portheus molossus, From the chalk beds ol Kansas. 

I he final exhibit, next to the Alcove entrance, considers the fishes 
with internal nostrils. The presence ol internal nostrils indicates that 
these fishes came to the surface for air-breathing, and that the) had true 
lungs in addition to gills. I he central portion ol the case shows the 
changes thai occurred in the skull roof, the front or pectoral fin and the 
backbone during the transition from a primitive crossopterygian lish to 
an earl) land-living vertebrate or amphibian. This great event in verte- 
brate evolution took place in the Devonian period when seasonal droughts 
forced the crossopterygians to move over the dr) stream beds in search 
ol water and thus to explore the possibilities of land existence. The 
histor) of the coelacanth fishes, which arose from the Devonian cross- 
opterygians, is illustrated on the right, ending in the living Latimeria. 
On the left are the fresh-water lunghshes or dipnoans, likewise descended 
from the Devonian crossopterygians. Both the coelacanths and the dip- 
noans evolved slowly, the modern representatives showing a marked 
resemblance to their ancestors. 

Early Reptiles and Dinosaurs 

The First Fossil Hall is dominated by the skeletons of three upper 
Jurassic dinosaurs, placed on a large island in the middle of the hall. 
The largest of the three skeletons, that of Brontosaurus, is almost sevent) 
feet in length and is some eighteen feet high at the hips. In life Bron- 
tosaurus must have weighed thirty or forty tons. The aggressive, meat- 
eating dinosaur, Allosaurus, probably preyed upon the big. inoffensive 
plant-eaters such as Brontosaurus, and in this group Allosaurus is 
mounted as if feeding upon a brontosaur backbone. The third dinosaur 
in the group is the plated dinosaur. Stegosaurus, another plant-eating 
form. 

A truly dramatic exhibit in this hall is the series of original brontosaur 
tracks, set into the base of the central dinosaur island. This track-way 
was excavated near Glen Rose. Texas, and reassembled in the Museum. 
In it are to be seen six forefoot and six hindfool impressions made b) a 
gigantic brontosaur as it tramped through a limy mud millions of years 
ago. The three-toed tracks of an allosaur follow those of the brontosaur. 
and since two of the allosaur tracks are super-imposed upon two of the 
large brontosaur tracks, it is evident that the meat-eating dinosaur was 
actuall) following the big plant-eater. Here, preserved in stone, is a 
story from the ancient geologic past! 

1 he- walls of the First Fossil Hall are decorated with mural drawings 
illustrating some ol the animals that lived during the late Paleozoic and 
Mcso/oie etas. The Age of Reptiles. Several assemblages ol animals — or 

56 






fauna* — are illustrated. These include the amphibians and reptiles that 

lived during the Permian limes in what is now Texas, the Pa mi m reptiles 
found in the Karroo desert of South Africa, the Chinle fauna oi Triassi< 
age from the southwestern pan of the United States, the Morrison fauna 
that spread over western North America in the late Jurassic times, the 
Belly River fauna of western Canada, and the Lance fauna, the last ol 
all dinosaurian faunas in North America. Also are shown various marine 
reptiles that lived during the Age of Reptiles, when dinosaurs ruled 
the land. 

The exhibits in the wall eases of this hall are arranged in a sequence 
that begins at the west end of the hall, near the entrance to the Alcove 
of Fossil Fishes. On the left side of the doorway is a case illustrating the 
origin and evolution of the first land-living vertebrates, the amphibians. 
This exhibit shows how the amphibians arose from fishes and how they 
developed along several evolutionary lines, the most important of which 
is that of the labyrinthodont amphibians. In the labyrinthodonts of 
Permian times, as represented by Eryops, shown here by skulls and a 
skeleton, the amphibians reached the culmination of their evolutionary 
development and for a brief time were in active competition with the 
reptiles for dominance of the land. The last of the labyrinthodonts 
lived in the Triassic period and are exemplified by the large, flattened 
form, Buettneria. With the close of Triassic times the labyrinthodonts 
became extinct, but before dying out they gave rise to the frogs and toads. 
Various other amphibians were contemporaneous with the labyrintho- 
donts, such as the bizarre animals represented in this exhibit by the 
genus Diplocaulus, a flat creature with an excessively broad skull, shaped 
rather like an arrowhead. 

In this case are also to be seen the first reptiles, derived from amphibian 
ancestors. The transition from the amphibians into the first reptiles w r as 
so gradual that it is difficult to draw a distinct line between the two 
classes of vertebrates. Seymouria is such a perfect intermediate form that 
the problem of whether it is properly an amphibian or a reptile is the 
subject of much scientific debate. A cast of the earliest known reptilian 
egg is seen as the central theme in this exhibit of the first reptiles; the 
original, in the Museum at Harvard University, was found in Permian 
sediments in north central Texas. Two primitive reptiles are exhibited 
in separate floor cases. One of these is Diadectes, from the Permian red 
beds of Texas; the other is Scutosaurus, from the Permian of northern 
Russia. 

On the right side of the doorway leading to the Fossil Fish Alcove 
is an exhibit of mammal-like reptiles or therapsids from South Africa. 
These reptiles reached an advanced stage of evolution at an early date 
and some of them were directly ancestral to the mammals. In the center 
of the exhibit is a rare skeleton of one of the mammal-like reptiles, 
Lycaenops. Some therapsids developed along lines that were not directly 
ancestral to the mammals, but rather toward other areas of specialization. 

GEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY S7 



["he dicynodonts wen large, plant-eating therapsids in which the teeth 
were suppressed except in the male animals, which had a pair ol upper 
nisks in the skull. The dinocephalians were large therapsids, some of 
which were carnivorous and some herbivorous. \ skeleton oi Most hops. 
one oi the plant-eating dinocephalians, is exhibited in a separate floor 
< ase. 

Uong the south wall ol the hall, opposite the skeleton oi Allosaurus, 
i^ a range ol cases exhibiting pelycosaui reptiles from the Permian beds 
ol Texas and Oklahoma. The pelycosaurs were related to the mammal- 
like reptiles ol South Africa. I he\ were Erequentl) specialized in rather 
strange ways. For instance, the predaceous form, Dimetrodon, had a large 
sail on its back formed by an elongation oi the spine of the vertebrae. 
Edaphosaurus, a water-dwelling, mollusk-eating pelycosaur, also had a 
huge sail on the back, in this case complicated by numerous bony cross- 
bars, like the yardarms on the mast of an old sailing vessel. The purpose 
ol these sails is entirely a matter of conjecture. Cotylorhynchus was a 
large, heaw pelycosaur with a small skull. 

\< ross the hall from the exhibit of Permian pelycosaurs is a series 
of cases in which are seen Triassic reptiles that lived during the earlv 
part of the Age of Dinosaurs. In the Triassic period reptiles other than 
dinosaurs were dominant, especially the large phytosaurs, of which a 
skeleton and some skulls are shown here. The phytosaurs, although the} 
looked much like crocodiles, were not of crocodilian relationship. They 
preceded the crocodilians. and it was only after the phytosaurs became 
extinct, at the end of the Triassic period, that the crocodilians began 
their evolutionary development. The large slab of phytosaur bones 
exhibited in this case was found beneath the palisade cliffs of the Hudson 
River, about a half-mile south of the George Washington Bridge. An- 
other fossil of local origin is the small skeleton of the primitive reptile 
Hypsognathus, discovered in a rock quarry between Clifton and Passaic 
New Jersey. Hypsognathus was the last of the cotylosaurian reptiles, and 
is related to some of the Permian cotvlosaurs that are exhibited in the 
southwest corner of the hall. 

A skeleton of a Triassic dinosaur, Plateosaurus, is displayed in a floor 
case near the wall cases just described. This specimen, from the upper 
Triassic sediments of Germany, represents a stage of evolution ancestral 
to the giant sauropod dinosaurs, such as Brontosaurus. Of particular 
importance in the study of dinosaurs are the skeletons of a primitive 
Triassic theropod, exhibited in the wall cases on the north wall and 
toward the east end of the hall. These skeletons, of the genus Coe- 
lophysiSj were excavated several years ago at Ghost Ranch in New 
Mexico, and they are among the most complete dinosaur remains ever 
discovered. Numerous skeletons, complete to the smallest bones and 
fully articulated, were found at Ghost Ranch. These represent animals 
in various stages of growth, and together they give us detailed informa- 
tion about the primitive dinosaurs. In this same case is a familv tree of 
the dinosaurs, illustrated by scale models. 

58 




PRIMITIVE DINOSAURS OF THE TRIASSIC 
PERIOD. The two skeletons of Coe/ophysis, 
exhibited as they were found in the rock, 
are among the most perfect dinosaur skele- 
tons ever discovered. These dinosaurs were 
close to the ancestral stock from which later 
dinosaurs evolved. 



Across the hall, on the south wall, is a case containing an exhibit 
of Morrison dinosaurs, contemporaneous with the skeletons that are 
displayed on the center island. 

At the east end of the hall, on either side of the doorway that leads 
into the corridor, are exhibits that illustrate such topics as the means 
of locomotion, defense, method of feeding, and the geologic and geo- 
graphic distribution of the dinosaurs. 

In the corridor between the First and Second Fossil Halls are dis- 
played marine reptiles that lived during the Age of Dinosaurs. Here are 
seen the fish-like ichthyosaurs, numerous in Jurassic and Cretaceous seas. 
A series of ichthyosaurs from Jurassic sediments in Germany show stages 
of growth. Also a mollusk-eating marine reptile, Placodus, is exhibited 
here, and in addition some plesiosaurs, the skeleton of a plesiosaur from 
the upper Jurassic of England. On the wall of the corridor opposite 
the entrance to this hall is the skeleton of a giant mosasaur of Cretaceous 
age. The mosasaurs were lizards that became adapted for swimming 
and developed to great size. 



SECOND FOSSIL HALL — Late Dinosaurs 

The Second Fossil Hall is devoted largely to the dinosaurs that lived 
during the Cretaceous period, immediately before the dinosaurs became 
extinct. Although other reptiles are exhibited in this hall, dinosaurs 
are dominant, as is evident from the large skeletons in the center of the 
hall and around the walls. 

In the center of the hall are the skeletons of three large dinosaurs 
that lived together at the very end of Cretaceous times. These are 

GEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY 59 



«A 




THE GIANT CARNIVOROUS DINOSAUR (Tyrannosaurus). This late Cretaceous dinosaur 
was the largest of all land-living, meat-eating animals. It preyed upon other large 
dinosaurs. 



Tyrannosaurus, the largest of the carnivorous or meat-eating dinosaurs 
and the largest flesh-eating animal ever to live on the land; Triceratops, 
a horned dinosaur that lived upon plants; and Trachodon, an aquatic 
dinosaur, also a plant-eater. 

The skeleton of Tyrannosaurus is some 45 feet in length, and as 
mounted it stands about 20 feet high at the top of the head. The huge 
skull, armed with sharp teeth, is in a case on the floor where it can be 
seen near at hand; a plaster replica is placed on the skeleton. Skeletons 
of Gorgosaurus, a predatory dinosaur similar but not quite so specialized 
as Tyrannosaurus, are seen on either side of the doorway at the south 
end of the hall. At this end of the hall are displayed also the skeletons 
of Ornitliomimus, a comparatively small and lightly-built theropod 
dinosaur, related in a general way to the large carnivors just described. 
Ornitliomimus was adapted for swift running and for feeding upon fruits 
and small animals. 

Trachodon is often called a "duck-billed" dinosaur because the front 
of the skull is flattened and expanded into a sort of bill. Because of this 
skull structure it is probable that Trachodon shoveled in the mud at 
the bottom of rivers and lakes for its food. There arc various indications 
that this was an aquatic dinosaur, among them being a remarkable 
petrified mummy, displayed near the mounted skeletons, in which not 
only the bones but also the skin are preserved. This specimen shows 
that the skin in the duck-billed dinosaurs was of leathery texture, and 
that there were webs between the toes of the front feet, as might be 
expected in a swimming animal. Other members of this group repre- 
sented in the hall by skeletons are Corxthosaurus. Saurolophus and 

60 GEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY 




THE DUCK-BILLED DINOSAUR (Trachodon). These were water-living, plant-eating 
dinosaurs that used the flat, duck-like bill for gathering aquatic vegetation. They 
lived along the shores of rivers and lakes in late Cretaceous times. 



Procheneosaurus. Also there is a case showing the evolution ol the skull 
in the duck-billed dinosaurs. Main ol these reptiles developed large 
( icst s on the top ol i he skull, formed l>\ an upgrowth ol the premaxillai \ 
.Mid n.is.ii bones, and these contained extended loops ol the nasal 
passages. 

Related to the duck-billed dinosaurs were tin peculiai troodonts or 
bone-headed dinosaurs, in which there was a great mass ol hone above 
the brain. I hese animals reached the culmination ol their evolution in 
Pachycephalosaurus, a skull ol which is exhibited. 

The horned dinosaurs, or ceratopsians, were plant-eaters, well adapted 
for defending themselves In fighting. The) were something like rhinoc- 
eroses in the modern world. The skeleton ol Triceratops shows the char- 
acteristic pose ol a ceratopsian dinosaur, with the huge head lowered 
to present the three long, sharp horns at an adversary, rhese dinosaurs 
had a large frill on the hack of the skull, which served in part as a 
protection for the neck and in part as an enlarged area ol attachment 
for heaw jaw and neck muscles. Various horned dinosaurs other 



DINOSAURS AND THEIR EGGS. Protoceratops was a small, primitive horned dinosaur 
that lived in Mongolia during the Cretaceous period. The two skeletons are shown 
with a reconstructed nest of eggs. 








A MAMMAL-LIKE REPTILE FROM SOUTH AFRICA. Lycaenops was a Permian reptile, 
belonging to the group of advanced reptiles that were ancestral to the first mam- 
mals. It exhibits many mammal-like characters in the skeleton. 



than Triceratops are on display, notably Monoclonius, with a single 
large horn on the nose and Styracosaurus, with spikes around the frill 
of the skull, in addition to the nasal horn. Of particular interest are 
the skeletons and eggs of Protoceratops, a small ceratopsian that was 
approximately ancestral to the larger types. The skeletons and eggs of 
Protoceratops were found at Djadochta in Outer Mongolia, by the 
Central Asiatic Expedition of this Museum. Several nests of eggs were 
discovered, and in some of the eggs are fossilized embryos of the dinosaur. 
These were the first dinosaur eggs to be discovered, and they confirmed 
previous speculations as to the method of reproduction in the dinosaurs. 
One other group of dinosaurs, the armored dinosaurs, is exhibited 
in this hall by a skeleton of Xodosaurus with the body armor in place. 



GEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY 63 



and 1)\ pari ol a skeleton of Palaeoscincus. These dinosaurs were com- 
pletel) covered on top l)\ heavy bony armor that protected them against 
attack from the large carnivorous dinosaurs of the time. 

On the left side ol the doorway ai the north end of the hall is a 
display of the pterosaurs or Hying reptiles. These reptiles arose in Jurassic 
t ii lies, ai about the time the birds were lust evolving, and for some time 
the) shared the skies with the early birds. There were many forms ol 
flying reptiles, some ol them as small as sparrows, others, like the giant 
Pteranodon on the wall, with a wing spread ol twenty [eel or more. In 
these reptiles the fourth linger ol the hand was elongated for a wing 
support, and the- wing itsell was formed b) a large fold ol skin. 

On the other side ol the doorway from the pterosaui exhibit is a 
display outlining the evolution of birds. 

THIRD FOSSIL HALL — Age of Mammals 

The beginning of the Age ol Mammals was characterized by a radical 
change in the kinds of vertebrate animals that inhabited the earth. The 
dinosaurs had disappeared at the end of the Cretaceous period, and with 
them the great swimming reptiles and the bizarre pterodactyls or flying 
reptiles. Although the mammals had already evolved from their reptilian 
ancestors by the Jurassic period, they did not begin to dominate the land 
until the beginning of the Tertiary period. 

The Third Fossil Hall, located in the southeast tower area, has been 
designed to illustrate a number of topics that may be logically con- 
sidered with the first part of the Age of Mammals. As the visitor enters 
this hall from the Second Fossil Hall, he will notice ahead of him a 
large semicircular exhibition case, the right part of which is devoted 
to the important question of why and how animals became extinct in 
the geologic past. The left part introduces the history of the mammals 
with a family tree showing the relationships of the various mammalian 
orders. 

The reptiles that survived the Age of Dinosaurs include the crocodil- 
ians, the lizards and snakes and the turtles. These groups are considered 
in a series of synoptic exhibits along the corridor that leads from the 
Second to the Fourth Fossil Hall. Here are seen the skull of a late 
Cretaceous giant crocodile, Phobosuchus } from Texas and the shell 
and skeleton of a giant Pleistocene tortoise from India. 

The story of the rise of the mammals begins with an exhibit on the 
origin of the mammals which is located beside the entrance to the Late 
Dinosaur Hall. Here the visitor may compare the skeleton of a reptile 
and a mammal, and note the differences in the method of reproduction 
of these two Classes of vertebrates as well as the differences in growth 
patterns. A series of models demonstrates the transformation of the 
skull and skeleton from reptile to mammal. 

The next exhibit illustrates the first true mammals, which lived 
together during the Age of Dinosaurs. They are known mostly from 
fragmentary skulls and teeth. Together with actual specimens of these 

64 GEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY 



first mammals, arc enlarged models ol lower jaws, skulls and teeth. 
These have been placed on a family nee to show how the) were related 
to each other and to their later and more familiar descendants. 

The marsupials are ;• well-defined group oi mammals including the 
common opossum and the kangaroo. I heir most distinctive charactei 
is the usual presence of a pouch on the bell) ol the female, in which the 
young, born at a \er\ immature stage, are carried for some time after 
birth. There are also various characters in the skeleton thai make it 
possible to distinguish the marsupials, fossil and living, from the great 
group of placental mammals to which man belongs. The exhibit on 
marsupials emphasizes the separate evolution of these animals into a 
variety of forms, many of which closel) resemble various placental 
mammals. The marsupials were most successful in South America and 
particularly in Australia where the) were lor long periods not in direct 
competition with the placental mammals. In the adjoining case is a 
cast of the skeleton of Diprotodon, the largest known marsupial. 

The placenta] mammals were not derived from the marsupials, 
although the) and the marsupials had a common ancestor. The placentals 
multiplied and diversified rapidly in the Paleoccne and particularly in 
the Eocene epochs. Quite distinctive assemblages existed in each of these 
periods along with characteristic plants and invertebrate animals, as 
shown by the exhibits that present cross-sections of early Tertiary life. 

One such cross-section includes fishes of the early part of the Age 
ol Mammals. Although little is known about the early evolution of the 
advanced bony fresh-water fishes, modern types are almost unknown in 
the fossil record until the Eocene period. Examples are exhibited of the 
various fossil fishes that occur in several large Eocene lake deposits in 
Wyoming, Colorado and Utah. In these lakes of 50 million years ago 
lived garfish, herrings, catfish and numerous other forms with close 
recent relatives. 

Across the corridor is a series of skeletons of the first hoofed mammals 
or condylarths from the Paleocene and Eocene epochs. The long, low 
skull, short limbs and long tail were primitive characters shared for the 
most part with the earliest flesh-eating mammals. Meniscotherium was 
a small condylarth, about the size of a cat. Ectoconus, with its rela- 
tively small skull and heavy limbs had the dimensions of a large dog 
Phenacodns, approaching the size of a tapir, represents the stock from 
which the odd-toed hoofed mammals (such as horses) probably arose. 



SKELETON AND RESTORATION OF A PRIMITIVE HOOFED MAMMAL (Ectoconus). This 
ancient mammal, from the Paleocene period, was quite generalized and apparently 
ate a variety of foods. 






Skeletons of Coryphodon and Uintatherium represent two different 
groups of archai< hoofed mammals, descended from the primitive condy- 
larths, that lived during the first part ol the Age ol Mammals. A 
lamih tree ol these animals is displayed around the coiner from the 
Uintatherium skeleton. In the semicirculai end case is a skeleton ol a 
Pliocene "earth pig" or aardvark (Orycteropus). Aardvarks are living 
toda\ in Africa. The structure ol the- aardvark skeleton suggests that 
this (minus animal ma\ have evolved from the (ond\larths. although 

the skull is highlj spe< ialized. 

\(ioss the alcove from the lamih ti ee ol the archaic ungulates is an 
exhibit concerned with the important subject of historical zoogeography. 
Here are explained some ol the factors that have influenced the distribu- 
tion of animals, particularly land mammals, in the geologic past — 
migration, the geographic isolation of groups ol animals, their radiation 
from a point of origin and their sequence of arrival on a particular 
continent. 

A genera] consideration of historical zoogeography naturally leads to 
an example of animal distribution and to the evolutionary effects of this 
distribution on the animals themselves. At the very beginning of the 
Age of Mammals, North and South America were connected by the 
Panama land bridge. At this time, three different groups of mammals 
crossed the bridge into South America: primitive marsupials, the an- 
cestors of the armadillos and sloths, and one group of early hoofed 
mammals. Following this invasion, the land bridge sank beneath the 
sea and remained snbmerged until just before the beginning of the Ice 
Age, perhaps 3 million years ago. During this long period of isolation, 
the early immigrants into South America evolved along diverse lines. 
Across the corridor is a cast of the skeleton of Macrauchenia, a highly 
specialized descendant of the condylarth immigrants. This creature 
probably had a short elephant-like trunk which, together with its long 
neck and legs, must have presented a most bizarre appearance. In this 
section of the hall, the visitor can examine other mammals from South 
America. The notoungulates, evolved from the condylarths, were ex- 
tremely varied, as the exhibits show. Toxodon lived in the Pliocene and 
Pleistocene epochs and, in build, must have resembled a short-legged 
rhinoceros. Scarrittia, from the Oligocene epoch, was a distant relative 
of Toxodon. 

The edentates are a distinctive order of mostlv South American 
mammals including the anteaters, armadillos and sloths. Grouped 
together in a dramatic manner in the tower alcove are some extinct 
descendants of the edentates that invaded South America during the 
Paleocene epoch. Included with them is the small Eocene Metacheiromys, 
a primitive edentate from North America. The ground sloths became 
common early in edentate history, and Hapalops is a typical Oligocene- 
Miocene form. Megalocnus got to Cuba by the Pleistocene. Mylodon and 
Lestodon were the giants of their kind, the former reaching North 
America after the land bridge was reestablished in the Pleistocene. 

66 



The armadillos were abundant and varied in South America by 
the Miocene. \n earl} offshoot <>l the armadillo sto<k Includes the 
glyptodons, which developed their protective armor into an immovable 
m.iss oi solid. l)on\ plates. I>\ the Pliocene epoch the) became ver) 
large, and in the Pleistocene epoch the) migrated into rexas and across 
to Florida. Glyptodon and Panochthus are representative examples. 

In the corridor near the Fourth Fossil Hall is an exhibil ol the fust 
Resh-eating mammals, or carnivores, called creodonts. The creodonts 
lived during the first pan ol the Age ol Mammals and their remains 
have been found on all the continents except South America and 
Australia. Most ol them had long, low skulls with a small braincase. 
In Mich forms as Oxyaena, the dentition was of the shearing type 
characteristic of later carnivores. The teeth of Mesonyx, on the other 
hand, had blunt, crushing cusps. The creodonts were the ancestors ol 
all the later carnivores — the cats, hyaenas, civets, dogs, heats, racoons, 
nnistelids. and also the seals and walruses. 

The only placental mammals known from the Age of Dinosaurs 
belong to a group known as insectivores. These ancient placental mam- 
mals are exceedingly rare and of great value in evolutionary studies. 
Modern insectivores include the moles, shrews and hedgehogs. Certain 
Cactaceous members of this group, such as the tiny Deltatheridium from 
Mongolia, must be close to the ancestral stock from which all the other 
I placental mammals arose. The skull of this form, which is the only 
part of the skeleton known, is exceedingly primitive and generalized for 
a placental mammal. A family tree of the insectivores is displayed in a 
case across the corridor from the creodont exhibit. 

To the right of the insectivore exhibit are two unrelated groups of 
Early mammals descended from the insectivores. The taeniodonts in- 
habited North America during the Paleocene and Eocene epochs. They 
had high, peg-like teeth and short skulls with deep, powerful lower 
jaws. The limbs w r ere short and stout. The tillodonts are known only 
from the Eocene epoch in North America. The skull had a small brain- 
case and the molar teeth were low-crowned; the skeleton was rather 
bear-like in its proportions. 

To the left of the insectivore exhibit is a large panel presenting a 
synoptic tree of the primates, the order of mammals to which man 
belongs. The primates evolved from the insectivore stock at the begin- 
ning of the Paleocene epoch. During the Paleocene and Eocene the early 
primates were numerous and divided into a number of separate evolu- 
tionary lines. Many of these then became extinct, but some continued 
on through the Age of Mammals to produce lemurs, Tarsius, the New 
and Old World monkeys, the apes and, of course, man — all living today. 

FOURTH FOSSIL HALL - AGE OF MAMMALS 

Osborn Memorial 

The fossil record for a few 7 groups of mammals is unusually complete, 
and it is possible to follow evolutionary changes in the skeleton for 

GEOiOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY 67 




TITANOTHERES. These long-extinct relatives of the horses and rhinoceroses began 
as small animals about the size of a fox (Eot/tanops, right, and Brontops, center). 
The last of the titanotheres, such as the gigantic Brontotherium (left), had large 
horn-like processes on the skull. 



many millions of years. This hall is especially concerned with some of 
the better known records in the history of the placental mammals. 

The south side of the hall illustrates the evolution of the various 
types of odd-toed ungulates or perissodactyls. Descended from the 
earliest hoofed mammals or condylar ths, the perissodac tyls were separated 
into the horses, rhinoceroses, tapirs and several now-extinct lines by the 
beginning of the Eocene epoch. One of the extinct groups, called titan- 
otheres, existed only during the Eocene and Oligocene. As may be 
noted in the alcove beside the Third Fossil Hall entrance, they evolved in 
this relatively short span of time from the fox-sized Eotitanops to the 
gigantic Brontotherium with large, horn-like processes on its skull. 

Another alcove is concerned with the extinct chalicotheres and the 
tapirs. MoropuSj a skeleton of which is near the center of the hall, was a 
Miocene chalicothere. It had a long neck, shorter hind than front legs, 
and, most curious of all, claws instead of hoofs. A synoptic family tree 
of the perissodactyls is exhibited at the back of this alcove. 

The rhinoceroses had a complicated fossil history and several dis- 
tinct lines were evolved. Hyrachyus and Hyracodon, in the adjacent 
alcove, are examples of slimly built Eocene and Oligocene running 
rhinoceroses. Amynodon and particularly Metamynodon, represented 
by complete skeletons in separate cases, were short-legged, hippopotamus- 
like forms. Trigonias and Teleoceras, also in individual cases, were 
close to the ancestry of the living rhinoceroses. The large block of 
Diceratherium bones, including the skulls of twenty-one individuals, 
gives some conception of the enormous number of these animals that 
lived in Nebraska during the Miocene period. 

The history of the horses has long been of interest to students of 
evolution. The changes that occurred between the early Eocene Hyraco- 
therium-eohippus and the modern horse can be traced with great 



68 



GEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY 



PLEISTOCENE 





PLIOCENE 





MIOCENE 





OLICOCENE 




-y 



EVOLUTION OF THE HORSE. The important changes from the Eocene eohippus to 
the modern horse are illustrated here by the skull and feet. 




MAMMALS OF THE UPPER PLIOCENE IN ARIZONA. In the foreground (left) is the 
large armadillo-like Glypotherium and (right) the single-toed horse Plesippus. 
Herds of the camel Pliauchenia and the mastodon called Stegomastodon are seen 
in the distance. 



A GROUP OF MIOCENE CAMEL SKELETONS (Stenomylus). Some of these are mounted 
in characteristic attitudes as if they were alive, others are lying on the rock matrix 
as their remains were actually found by a Museum expedition. These camels 
inhabited America at the beginning of the Miocene period. 





exactness because of the excellence ol the horse fossil record. A series 
of progressively later horses demonstrates the reduction in the numbei 
of iocs to the single functional toe ol the modern Ion us. I he lengthening 
of the limbs and the skull and the increase in general bod) si/c are 
well demonstrated. 

Across the hall several alcoves are devoted to the many and varied 
even-toed ungulates or artiodactyls. The family tree of the artiodactyls 
shows the relationships of certain living members of the group (which 
includes the pigs, peccaries, hippopotami, camels, deer, giraffes, antelopes 
and cattle), and a few of the main fossil families. Hie artiodactyls, like 
the peri c sodactyls, evolved from the condylarths. 

Perhaps the most successful artiodactyls of the Middle Tertiary in 
\orih America were the oreodonts. These rather pig-like ruminants 
were \er\ abundant, particularly in the Oligocene and Miocene periods. 
The agriochoerids, represented by the skeleton of Agriochoerus, re- 
sembled the oreodonts except that the feet bore claws rather than hoofs. 

The pigs of the Old World and the living peccaries of the New World 
had a long separate history. Skulls of typical examples of each group 
are shown. 

Stenomylus was a small Miocene camel that lived in North America. 
The group in the center aisle is made up of skeletons of this creature 
as they were preserved in the rock, and in various living poses. The 
parly evolution of the camels occurred in North America, and they did 
not enter South America (llamas) or Asia until near the end of the Age 
of Mammals. 

The display of flesh-eating mammals or carnivores includes fossil 
representatives of the various types of cats, including the saber-tooth 
forms, and also the mustelids, bears, raccoons and dogs. 

The rodents — squirrels, beavers, rats and mice, porcupines and 
guinea pigs and a host of other living and extinct forms — are the most 
successful and numerous of living mammals. The various types of fossil 
rodents known from the Eocene and Oligocene periods indicate that 
this group was subdivided into many evolutionary lines early in the Age 
of Mammals. The rather squirrel-like Paramys was a typical early rodent. 

FIFTH FOSSIL HALL — Ice Age Mammals 

The Pleistocene, or Ice-age, is one of the most interesting geological 
periods because it was during this comparatively short span of time that 
most of the evolution of man took place. The animals which lived then, 
sharing with early man the rigors of a glacial climate, w r ere the most 
immediate ancestors of those we know 7 today. In the Osborn Hall of the 
Age of Man are displayed man} of the animals which are known to have 
been contemporaneous with early man. The murals on the walls, painted 
by Charles R. Knight, show 7 groups of Pleistocene mammals of North 
and South America and Europe, and some of the early men associated 
with them. 

GEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY 7\ 



Among the mosi spectaculai oi Pleistocene animals were the mas- 
todons ;iihI mammoths, relatives oi the modern elephants, remains ot 
which are widel) distributed ovei the earth. I he evolution ol these 
two distinct groups ol the Proboscidea is shown here, beginning with the 
most primitive mastodons, on the right as the hall is entered from the 
elevators, rhese, the moeritheres, found in Egypt, were the smallest 
proboscideans, and had both upper and lowei tusks and a short trunk 
or proboscis. Specimens in succeeding cases, from man) parts of the 
world, show the gradual reduction of the lower msks and number of 
teeth, the shortening of the front ol the skull as the trunk lengthened, 
and the increase in si/e and hulk ol the animal. 

Three special exhibits, illustrated b\ skulls and jaws from the 
magnificent collections oi Mr. Childs Frick, show (1), three widel) 
different mastodon groups, based on the character of lower jaws and 
incisors; (2), the remarkable variation and specialization ol the lower 
jaw symphysis and incisor within the so-called "longirostrine" group of 
mastodons; and (3), a life reconstruction on one side of a fossil skull and 
jaws of one of the longirostrines, OcalientinitSj showing the external 
appearance of the animal's head, cross-section of muscle and hide, and 
the bone itself. 

Three mounted skeletons represent various stages in the evolution 
of the mastodon group: Trilophodon, from the lower Pliocene of Texas, 
is considerably larger than the moeritheres, but retains primitive features 
such as the elongated lower jaw and small lower tusks. Megabelodon, 
another long-jawed Pliocene mastodon, is not an ancestor of either the 
true mastodons or of the mammoths and elephants, but belongs to a 
distinct group of proboscideans. The skeleton which represents the 
American mastodon is here called "The Warren Mastodon," because of 
its interesting history. One of the most perfectly preserved fossil skeletons 
ever found, it was collected in 1845 from shell-marl beds on a farm near 
Newburgh, New York. After exhibition in New York and Xew England, 



^ 



WOOLLY MAMMOTH. A herd of the woolly mammoths along the River Somme, France, 
during the last glacial stage. 





RESTORATION OF RANCHO LA BREA 
TAR POOL SCENE. This painting in- 
cludes the giant condor, saber-tooth 
cat, giant ground sloth, and in the 
distance, the Imperial Mammoth and 
the dire wolf. 




PLEISTOCENE MAMMALS. Skeletons of 
the saber-tooth cat (left), dire wolf 
(right) and giant sloth (foreground, 
mostly submerged in tar) from the 
Pleistocene tar pools of Rancho La 
Brea, Los Angeles, California. 



it was purchased by Dr. John Collins Warren, a professor of anatomy at 
Harvard College, was mounted in 1846 and seen by thousands of visitors. 
In 1849 it was remounted and placed on exhibition in the Warren 
Museum in Boston, where it remained until 1906, when J. Pierpont 
Morgan presented it, with the entire Warren Collection, to this museum. 
In 1907 the skeleton was taken apart, cleaned and remounted as it stands 
today. The American mastodon was the most abundant of the Pleistocene 
proboscideans of North America, especially in the forested regions east 
of the Mississippi. 

The tall Columbian mammoth skeleton, with its great incurved tusks, 
is a dramatic example of the group of true elephants which co-existed 
with the mastodons in Pleistocene times. Mammoth skulls and jaws 
from many parts of the world, and one of the largest known mammoth 
tusks, over 16 feet in length, are exhibited here, with skulls of the living 
Indian and African elephants for comparison. Many remains of Pleisto- 
Icene mammals have been discovered in the frozen ground of the far 

GEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY 73 



north, often with flesh and hide well preserved. Examples of the dried 
flesh, woo] and hair ol a woolh mammoth found in Alaska may be 
seen here. 

On the other side ol the hall is a l; i < > 1 1 p showing how animals were 
dapped in natural asphalt pools at the famous Ranrho la Brea tar pits 
in Los Angeles, California. Additional mounted skeletons of the saber- 
tooth tiger and woll are displayed nearby. Here also is the huge European 
cave-bear, mounted in a standing attitude of attack. Pleistocene artio- 
dactyls, or "even-toed" ungulates, include a series of sknlls of various 
kinds of wild cattle and a mounted skeleton ol a bison From Folsom, 
New Mexico, showing the association of arrow-points with bones of this 
animal. The mounted skeleton ol the Irish deer. MegalocerOS, with its 
wide antlers, is historically interesting in being the first mounted fossil 
skeleton exhibited in this museum. In contrast to this, is the skeleton 
of a pigmy hippopotamus which lived in Madagascar during Pleistocene 
times. 

\ small group showing one way in which fossil bones are preserved 
is the reproduction of part of the Conard Fissure locality in the Ozark 
Hills of northern Arkansas. During Pleistocene times, a fissure, or open 
ciack caused by earth movements, was gradually filled with rocks, red 
clay and stalactites. Imbedded in this are found the bones of animals 
which inhabited the fissure, and of the prey they dragged into it. More 
than f)() different species of mammals, birds and reptiles have been found, 
mostly of a forest fauna such as bears, wild-cats, wolves, rodents, bats 
and snakes. 

MICROPALEONTOLOGY 

Micropaleontology is that phase of general paleontology that deals 
with very small animals and plants. The Department of Micropaleon- 
tology is wholly a research department and has no exhibits except for 
the models of Forcuninifera displaved in the gallery of the Hall of 
Ocean Life. 

The work of the Department includes research on the literature of 
the field, research on fossil material for clients, and independent work 
on microfossils. Studies are also carried on to determine the relationship 
of fossil and living forms to their past and present environments. 

The results of these studies are largely contained in published 
material distributed to subscribing members of the Department. Among 
those subscribers are almost all of the larger universities and colleges, 
other museums and research institutions, and all the major oil com- 
panies of the world, whose principal output depends on a thorough 
knowledge of the tiny creatures that help us to find oil deposits. 



74 GEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY 



INVERTEBRATES 




The exhibits include a number of habitat groups showing inverte- 
brates in their natural surroundings and a synoptic series from the 
simplest single-cell animals to the most complex invertebrates. 

THE SYNOPTIC SERIES 

Because of the small size and fragile nature of many invertebrates, a 
large part of this exhibit consists of glass or wax models, often much 
enlarged. These include the famous jewel-like creations of Herman 
Mueller. 

OXE-CELLED ANIMALS — Protozoa. These exhibits show the sim- 
plest form of animal life. Although in some forms the animals assemble 
into colonies, all are single-celled individuals. These exhibits are mainly 
models which represent protozoa enlarged hundreds of times. 

SPONGES — Porifera. Sponges are made up of many cells but these 
are comparatively loosely organized and do not form definite and distinct 
tissues as in the higher animals. Sponges range in size from small incrus- 
tations on stones and shells to the gigantic Neptune Goblets of Eastern 
Seas. 

STINGING ANIMALS - Coelenterates. These include the coral 
animals and their relatives, the hydroids, jellyfish, sea anemones, sea 
fans, sea plumes, stony corals and similar creatures. The stinging animals 
have their cells organized into definite tissues but these do not form real 
organ systems as in the higher forms. 

COMB JELLIES — Ctenophora. While similar in appearance to the 
stinging animals, these lack the stinging cells characteristic of the last 
group. Although they do not have definite organ systems, their organiza- 

75 



SETHOPHORMIS. This glass model shows the 
silica skeleton of a typical Radiolaria. 
These minute animals live in the deeper 
water of the seas. 




GLOBIGERINA. This is a minute sea animal 
belonging to the group called Foraminifera 
The needles are a floating device. The lim< 
shells of the dead animals fall to the oceai 
bottom where they form, in certain areas 
a muck called the Globigerina ooza. Th« 
fossil shells of these animals as well as th< 
Radiolaria are important to the oil industry 
because they are used to date the ages o 
rocks. 



CHAMBERED NAUTILUS. Cross section show- 
ing chambers. The animal occupies the last 
chamber. 



rion is more complex than thai of stinging animals. I ransparem with 

iridescent, vibrating, swimming hairs, in life they are often objects of 
meat beauty. 

FLAT WORMS - Platyhelminthes. There are many important 
parasitic species of flatworms, including the tapeworm, which are shown 
in a series of models. The enlarged wax models of free-living forms show 
mostly species from the Mediterranean, but beautifully colored flatworms 

are found in almost all seas; those living in fresh water are usually less 
brilliant. All of the important organ systems of the higher animals are 
present in these worms. 

ROUNDWORMS — Nemathelminthes. The parasitic roundworms are 
very widespread; almost every other type of many-celled plants and 
animals harbour one or more species of nematodes. Several serious 
human diseases such as trichinosis and elephantiasis are caused by these 
animals. Less well-known are the vast numbers of free-living nematodes 
found nearly everywhere in the soil and in both fresh and salt water. 

ROTIFERS — Rotifera. The minute wheel animals or rotifers in- 
clude many exquisite or grotesque forms. A few are parasitic but most 
are free-living. Most of them live in fresh water where they are very 
widely distributed. In addition to the comparative series of models of 
enlarged rotifers in the wall case at the southwest end of the gallery, 
rotifers in their natural environment are shown in the Pond Life Group 
at the other side of the Bahama Reef Group. 

SPINY ANIMALS — Echinodermata. These include the sea stars, 
brittle stars, sea urchins, sea cucumbers and sea lilies. In spite of their 
entirely different appearance, many zoologists believe that this group 
of invertebrates is that which is most closely related to the chordates, 
the group of animals to which man belongs. This conclusion is based 
upon a study of the body chemistry and of the early stages in their life 
history. 

CHORDATES — Chordata. The phylum includes not only the verte- 
brates but a number of small, relatively primitive and unfamiliar 
animals as well. The three cases devoted to this phylum in the Gallery 
of Living Invertebrates show the hemichordata and the ascidians. Ana- 
tomical models of important members of these groups show the details of 
their internal anatomy while other exhibits show the external appear- 
ance of many other forms. 

PROBOSCIS WORMS — Sipunculoidea and Echiuroidea. These small 
groups of worm-like animals have until recently been included either 
in the segmented worms or combined into one group, the Gephyrea. 
Their anatomical peculiarities are, however, sufficienty distinct to justify 
considering them as separate groups. They are all marine and for the 
most part live either in burrows or in natural fissures. 

INVERTEBRATES 77 




1,000,000 TIMES MAGNIFIED DROP OF POND WATER. This exhibit shows Spirogyra 
with its spiral band of chlorophyll. In the center is the common pond weed, blad- 
derwart, which bears bladders that trap small animals. 



78 




^* 




.JBWL 



A PORTION OF THE ROCK POOL GROUP. On the rocky northern New England Coast 
are numerous basin-like crevices in the cliffs. At high tide, many of these are 
totally submerged, but as the water recedes they are left as stranded pools, richly 
populated with marine animals and plants. In this group, sea-anemones are dis- 
closed among the rockweed, sea-lettuce and kelp. 



INVERTEBRATES 79 



SEGMENTED WORMS - Annulata. As typified by the common 
earthworm, these worms are made up ol rings or segments. They include 
man) remarkable and beautiful marine worms as well as the more 
familiar earthworms and leeches. 

JOINT-LEGGED ANIMALS - Arthropoda. These include the crabs, 
lobsters, Insects, spiders and their relatives. The number of living species 
in this group is greater than that of all the resi ol the animal kingdom. 
1 he lobster exhibited here is one ol the largest ever taken. The largest 
living arthropod is the Giant Japanese Spider Crab which is shown in 
the case at the north end of the gallery. 

MOLLUSKS — Mollnsca. The mollusca are next to the arthropods in 
the diversity and number of forms. They include clams, snails, slugs and 
limpets as well as squids and octopuses. All these animals have soft 
bodies but most of them secrete a hard exterior shell. The wall cases at 
the north end of the gallery contain a series of mollusk shells selected 
to show the range of size and form in each of the superfamilies. In the 
"A" case near the entrance to the hall are a group of large shells including 
a paper nautilus which is believed to be the largest perfect specimen. 

Upon entering the hall, a large model of the GIANT SQUID, Archi- 
teuthis princeps is seen overhead. This model is based upon the studies 
made by Professor Verrill on specimens stranded in Newfoundland 
between 1872 and 1879. These large animals are attacked and eaten 
by the sperm whales. A fight between these two monsters of the sea is 
shown on the right in a mural painted by J. M. Guerry. 

HABITAT GROUPS 

On both sides of the hall at the far end of the gallery are displays 
showing invertebrates in their natural habitats. THE SALT MARSH 
GROUP is the first on the left. This group depicts the life in a salt 
marsh at Cold Spring Harbor, Long Island, and is typical of such 
marshes from Cape Cod to Cape Hatteras. 

THE SOUND BOTTOM GROUP represents a sandy bottom with 
large granite boulders forming the reef known as the Devil's Bridge in 
Vineyard Sound, Massachusetts. The lobster and blue crab are among 
the animals shown. 

THE WHARF PILE GROUP includes animals living in and among 
the submerged piles of an old wharf at Vineyard Haven, Massachusetts. 
The piles are covered with the flower-like colonies of sea anemones, 
hydroids and other stationary animals. 

THE POND LIFE GROUP displays a cubic half inch of pond bottom 
enlarged one hundred diameters or cubically a million times, transform- 
ing a minute area into a forest peopled by rotifers and other strange 
creatures ordinarily invisible to the naked eye. 

80 INVERTEBRATES 



€s 




A PORTION OF THE BAHAMIAN REEF CROUP. Coral is a colony of animals that secrete 
a limey skeleton. 



PEARL DIVERS GROUP. Tongareva Island. A great variety of coral is also repre- 
sented in this group. 



•Sftw 




* 






On the other side of the upper part of the Bahamian Reef Group a 
companion exhibit to the Pond Life Group shows two square inches of 
sea bottom enlarged to an area five feet square. Pieces of sea weed are 
seen encrusted with colonies ol Bryozoa composed of thousands of small 
animals each ol which has built a vase-like shell. Encrusting ascidians 
and their tadpole-like young, a sea spider and Rower-like sea worms are 
among the othei strange animals found here. 

THE ROCK POOL GROUP contains the life which may be found in 
rock pools along our shores north ol Cape Cod. In the scene, the falling 
tide has left a pool in a rock) basin which shelters a community of sea 
anemones, sea stairs and other invertebrates. 

THE EELGRASS GROUP shows a portion of the bottom of the harbor 
at Woods Mole. Massachusetts. In addition to the animals living on or 
above the bottom, a cross-section of the bottom reveals animals which 
burrow into the mud and sand. 

THE BAHAMIAN REEF GROUP is seen at the farther end as you enter 
the Hall of Ocean Life. The portion of the group above the gallery 
shows the coral island and qtiiet lagoon. On the distant horizon the 
low-lying Bahama Island of Andros is seen with its fringe of coconut 
palms. Here the finest barrier reef in the West Indies parallels the shore. 
The small island in the foreground below the gallery depicts the coral 
forest as seen from the bottom of the sea. Main colorful inhabitants 
of the reef are seen among the branches of the tree-like elkhorn coral 
which rise to the water surface sixteen feet above. 

THE PEARL DIVERS GROUP to the right of the Bahamian Reef Group 
represents a scene on the ocean floor within the enclosed lagoon of the 
coral atoll, Tongareva. This small, ring-shaped island, eleven miles 
in diameter, is in the South Pacific Ocean about 2000 miles south of 
Honolulu. This group shows the marked contrast between the bril- 
liantly colored delicate ponds and finch divided clusters of coral found 
in the Pacific reef and the weird, branching species of the Atlantic 
exhibited in the adjoining Bahamian Reel Group. 



82 INVERTEBRATES 




Insects and spiders play a very important part in man's every day 
life, a part which is too often ignored or about which too little is under- 
stood by the general public. About 80% of the total number of species 
in the Animal Kingdom belong in the phylum Arthropoda which in- 
cludes insects and spiders. At the present time approximately 850,000 
species of insects and spiders have been described, and it is probable 
that there exists the almost unbelievable number of 9,000,000 additional 
species. Man) insects and spiders have no direct bearing on man's 
economy or interests although they may be very important in maintain- 
ing a balance in nature. Because of this large number of species, it is, 
therefore, impossible to display examples of each. 

In the Insect and Spider Hall, which is the largest and most complete 
exhibit of its kind in this country, examples of some of the more interest- 
ing species, and ecological and biological phenomena are presented. 
Beneficial and destructive insects are displayed, along with beautiful and 
bizarre insects from all over the world. These exhibits have been accom- 
plished through the efforts of the research staff of the Department of 
Insects and Spiders, which is constantly studying many phases of insect 
and spider life. Problems in biology and ecology are always attracting 
the staff to work afield in many areas in this country and abroad where 
large and important collections are made. 

Much of the work carried on in the laboratories at the Museum has 
to do with the classification or naming of the various species. The 
importance and necessity of this research work to the public arises from 
the fact that each year we receive thousands of requests for identifications 
of insects and spiders that have come to the public's attention. We are 



83 



constantly being asked to name a particulai insect and to state whether 
01 not ii is dangerous, il it will destroy household furnishings, the home, 
personal belongings, oi ii il will affect the health of individuals coming 

in contact with it. 

I he visitor's interest ill the Insect and Spider Hall will be affected 
by his own persona] experience. The suburban dweller will perhaps 
be more interested in those insects affecting garden or ornamental plants, 
whereas the apartment house dweller who has no garden will probably 
be more interested in household insects. Exhibits of insects of interest 
to both groups are to be found in the Insect and Spider Hall. 

Through the ages and even before the time of civilization, man has 
struggled with the inseHs lor his existence. At the same time main 
msec ts contribute beneficially in supplying man with various commodities 
and many predaceous and parasitic species have aided in the control of 
destructive insects. The ways in which insects are beneficial to man are 
many and varied. Among these we might mention the silk worm in 
relation to true silk of commerce. Beeswax and honey are products of 
the honeybee which have long been used by man. Shellac is a secretion 
el a scale insect of India. The- cochineal scale insect is used as a dye for 
artificial coloring of foods, drinks and cosmetics. A number of extracts 
of medicinal value have been made from the bodies of insects, and 
spider silk is employed in the manufacture of certain optical instruments. 
These are but a few of the examples of direct usage of insects. Probably 
the most important benefit derived from them is in their pollinizing of 
various fruits, seeds and vegetables which form a large portion of man's 
diet. Most of the animals used by man for his meat are dependent upon 
plants which would not exist if this pollinization were to cease.' Even 
many of the fish products utilized by man would disappear were it not 
lot the fact that aquatic insects are available as food for the fish. Mam 
of our game birds are dependent almost entirely, or at least in large 
part, on insects for their food. In many parts of the world, from ancient 
times to the present day, insects have been eaten by human beings. 
Among these we might mention grasshoppers, crickets, beetles, cater- 
pillars of moths and butterflies, termites and aquatic flies and bugs. 
Insects have also been used extensively in scientific research on genetics, 
physiology, psychology and sociology 

The ways in which insects are injurious to man are many and often 
of a critical nature. They injure or kill all kinds of crops, forest trees 
and valuable plants by chewing the foliage, sucking the sap, boring or 
tunneling into roots, stems or leaves, by carrying organisms such as 
fungi, bacteria, or protozoa which then attack the plant. It has been 
estimated that the direct annual agricultural losses occasioned by insects 
in the United States are about 52,000,000,000. They attack and annoy or 
kill living animals. Many species such as flies do direct damage by feeding 
on living tissue, others carry parasites of various diseases, some serve as 
intermediate hosts for organisms pathogenic to man and still others are 
venomous and are capable of causing bodily injury. 

84 INSECTS AND SPIDERS 



rhc species most commonly observed l>\ the publi< are those which 
attack stored food products, clothing, books, furniture and buildings, 
rermites are among the mosi destructive in iliis group bul such insects 
.is powder post beetles and cigarette beetles do considerable damage to 
furnishings. I he clothes moths and the carpel beetles do millions ol 
dollars in damage annuall) to clothing and similar materials. I he meal 
worms are often found in packaged cereals and other prepared grain 
foods and make such products unfit for human consumption. To this 
■roup can be added a host of species which attack field crops and upon 
which we are constantly required to apply expensive control measures. 
Among these pests we might mention the Colorado potato beetle, the 
Mexican bean beetle, the cotton boll weevil and the coin ear worm. 
\o part of a plant is immune to insect attack. The immature stages oJ 
man\ species feed on the roots, whereas both immature and adult insects 
attack the leaves, stems, fruits and flowers. 

Some of the greatest scourges in the history of mankind have been 
transmitted by insects. Black Death or Plague, which is transmitted by a 
flea, has claimed millions of lives since the sixth century and continues to 
be a constant menace to modern society. Yellow- fever transmitted by 
the mosquito has at times made portions of the world uninhabitable 
and nearly prevented the construction of the Panama Canal. Malaria, 
also transmitted by the mosquito, has been and is an important disease of 
man. It is widely distributed throughout the world and during the 
recent war a considerable number of men had to be employed in the 
control and prevention of this disease. Typhus, transmitted by the body 
louse, has always been a major problem in congested areas and many 
thousands of people in many parts of the world suffer from its depreda- 
tions. Ticks and mites, which are not insects but are related, carry a 
number of diseases which are of great importance. Rocky Mountain 
spotted fever which has claimed the lives of many people is carried by a 
tick. A number of species of mites are responsible for mange and almost 
everyone has come in contact with the red mites which make life 
miserable over extensive areas in the New World. 

From the above account the reader will be impressed by the fact that 
very few organisms or habitats on the earth's surface are not frequented 
by insects. Indeed they have been more successful in adapting them- 



THE HUMAN FLEA 

(Pulex irritans), 

relatives of which 

are responsible for 

the transmission of 

Bubonic Plague. 




selves to life on ihis world ol ours than an) othei organism. Prool ol 
this adaptability can be seen when one considers that insects came into 
being some $00,000,000 years ago and have out-lived such animals as the 
dinosaurs which might seem to have been better able to survive because 
of then m'/c .uid strength. 

THE EXHIBITS 
rhe Museum visitor often wonders about the relationships between 
various groups ol organisms. The Animal Kingdom is divided into a 
number ol very large groups (ailed Phyla. The insects, spiders and 
mites belong to the phylum Arthropoda. This ph\lum contains a number 
of (lasses including the Arachnida, or spiders and mites, and Insecta, or 
insects. In other words, the two groups belong to the same ph\lum but 
to two different classes within the phylum. The Insect and Spider Hall, 
therefore, covers members ol two (lasses belonging to the phylum 
Arthropoda. Exhibits showing othei classes in this ph\lum are pre- 
sented in other halls in the Museum. 

Because of the irregular architecture of the Insect and Spider Hall 
and the difficult) often experienced in locating particular exhibits, a 
map is presented to show the more important subjects and groups pre- 
sented. It should be remembered, however, that there are many exhibits 
not indicated on the map and also that the cases are not numbered 
according to the map numbers. The numbers are referred to in the 
following text and the placement on the map is in the approximate 
location in the hall. Case 1 is to the left of the entrance from the Hall of 
Reptiles and Amphibia while Case 17 is to the left of the entrance coming 
from the Hall of Biology of Mammals. 




6 



□ 




ECONOMIC INSECT EXHIBITS 



jglED Rra 




|24||23||22||27| 



4 


3 


2 




25 


18 



17 




DIAGRAM OF THE HALL OF 
INSECT AND SPIDER LIFE 
showing the location of some 
of the more important and 
interesting exhibits 
referred to in the text. 



BENEFIC1 \i INSECT] s. Main insects and Insect products have been 
and arc utilized directl) or indirectly l>\ man. In Case 9 examples ol the 
swarming of honeybees as well as the various types <>l cells contained 
in the hives arc presented. Illustrations of the worker and queen and 
prone bees are also shown. Included in this exhibit is an example ol the 
bee moth whose larva feeds at night on the wax of the combs. 

Main different kinds of insects are used for fish bail and others are 
used as models for the construction of fishermen's "flies." Case 24 con 
tains a series <>l models showing how to tic a llv, together with models ol 
well-known commercial (lies now in use. Examples of both American 
and English fishing flies are shown. 

In Case 2 various examples of fruits, vegetables and other products 
whose development is dependent upon insects for pollination are 
presented. 

A very extensive exhibit on the progressive stages in silk culture is 
shown in wall cases. This traces the development from the larval stage 
of the silk moth through the various stages in the manufacture of silk to 
the finished product. Examples of the adult silk moths and related moths 
with their pupal cases are also given. 

DESTRUCTIVE INSECTS. On the south side of the hall in a 
number of cases are a series of exhibits showing insects that attack 
various tvpes of plants and food products that are of value to man. Actual 
specimens and examples of types of injury are included. Such household 
pests as clothes moths, carpet beetles, cockroaches, house ants and bed- 
bugs are presented either as actual specimens, or, where the insects are 
very small, as enlarged models or illustrations. Pests of stored food 
products including the flour moths, meal worms and tobacco beetles are 
to be found in these groups. Other insects attacking cotton, truck crops, 
fruits, woody plants, shade trees, nut trees and coniferous plants are to 
be found in this series. 

One of the most destructive and most commonly encountered of the 
household insects is the termite. In Case 25 the visitor will find enlarged 
models showing the differences between the termite and the ant and in 
Case 4 a diagrammatic chart of the life history of the termite. Also in 
this case the visitor will find a series of enlarged models showing the 
various castes in the termite's social organization. 

INSECTS AND ART. In Cases 10 and 11 are examples of art w r ork 
in which insects are employed as subjects, or in w r hich actual insect 
specimens or portions of their bodies are used in various types of orna- 
mentation. Examples of such work from Asia, Central and South 
America are presented. 

INSECT BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY. The life history, habits of 
ants and their relation with other insects are presented by a series of 
illustrations and photographs in Case 3. 

In Case 12, by means of colored illustrations and actual specimens, 
the growth and development of the Io moth is shown. Also in this case 
the visitor wall find the immature stages and adults of the 17-year locust. 

INSECTS AND SPIDERS 87 




MODEL OF MOLE CRICKET (enlarged five diameters), 
especially adapted for digging. 



An insect with forelegs 



Case 13 is a habitat group in which the Mole Cricket is shown in its 
natural environment in the ground. 

Similarly in Case 14 a dragonfly nymph is shown in the act of catching 
a mosquito larva. Both of these exhibits depict the insects enlarged five 
times natural size. 

Habitat group No. 21 shows a portion of a colony of Army ants with 
raiders bringing back insects they have captured and killed. 

Case 22 is a similar exhibit showing leaf-cutting ants on branches, 
entering the nests, carrying the pieces of leaves that they have cut. These 
pieces of leaves are not eaten but are used in growing a special kind of 
fungus that is eaten as food. 

Habitat group No. 23 shows a nest of the stingless bees with the 
entrance extending from a cavity in a tree. These bees are unable to 
sting and the honey of some species is pleasant to the human taste and 
is utilized by the inhabitants of many tropical countries. 

An example of beetles in hibernation is presented in Case 20, show- 
ing the massing of Lady Bird beetles in a mountainous area. 

The abundance of, and destruction caused by, the Japanese beetle is 
illustrated in Case 19. 

INSECT AND SPIDER ARCHITECTURE. Case 5, although in- 
complete, contains a number of examples of the different types of nests 
constructed by various species of tropical wasps. 

Various types of ant nests are shown in Case 3. 

In wall case No. 1 are models showing the processes in the weaving 
of the spider web. Pictures of actual webs, with colored illustrations of 
the spiders, are also to be found in this group. 

88 INSECTS AND SPIDERS 




DRAGON-FLY NYMPH catching a mosquito larva by means of its curiously modified 
lower lip which is segmented and has a pair of pincers at its tip. 



TROPICAL WASP NEST with side cut away to show the internal architecture. 






A GATHERING OF MONARCH BUTTERFLIES. 
In early autumn, the Monarch Butterfly 
(Danaus plexippus) assembles in great 
swarms in various sections of the United 
States. At nightfall, large numbers crowd 
onto the leaves and branches of trees and 
shrubs. These swarms move southward for 
the winter much as birds migrate. The 
females come north the next spring and 
re-establish the northern population. 



BEAUTY IN THE INSECT WORLD. There is probably no group 
of organisms on the earth's surface in which can be found the combina- 
tion, variety and brilliance of colors shown by insects. Case 15 presents 
many of the more beautiful butterflies and moths from various sections 
of the world. These arc arranged around maps in which the areas of 
distribution represented by the moths and butterflies are variously 
colored. 

Additional examples of many species of beautiful butterflies and 
moths from many parts of the world can be iound in the cases surround- 
ing the whale in the Hall of Biology of Mammals which is to the west 
of the Insect and Spider Hall. 

ODDITIES IN INSECTS. A series of enlarged models in Case 16 
illustrates the peculiar structures in the treehoppers and a series of models 
shows the complete life cycle of a local species. 

In Case 17 the visitor can see acttial specimens of insects showing the 
differences between the males and females of various species of beetles, 
moths and butterflies. Actual examples are also presented showing 
various types of special adaptation including the very long ovipositors in 
some wasps, the very long mouthparts in moths and the extensive wing 
development in the dragon fl) which makes possible its vcr\ rapid flight. 
The phenomenon of variation is illustrated by actual examples in three 
spec ies of insects. 

Insects that mimic their environment are displayed in Case 18. Pro- 
tect ive coloration as shown in some of the moths is presented, showing 



90 



INSECTS AND SPIDERS 



THE BODY LOUSE 
(Pediculus humanus corporis), 
the carrier of Typhus fever. 



■PPPl^^i 





these insects in a portion of their actual environment. This exhibit also 
includes species that resemble dead twigs or leaves and others th;it look 
like fungus growths on tree trunks. A number of examples ol mimicry - 
instances in which insects, commonly eaten by other organisms, resemble 
species that are not eaten and are probably distasteful — are presented. 
This case also includes a series of bizarre species. An example of a walk- 
ing stick, one of the longest of all insects known, is on display with its 
wings extended. Various types of leg, antennal and mouthpart develop- 
ments in beetles are shown by actual specimens. 

INSECTS AND DISEASES OF MAN. It has been estimated that the 
annual vital loss to man and his domestic animals attributed to insects 
or diseases carried by insects is about S78 1,450,000. One of the most 
important diseases in the Western Hemisphere is malaria carried by 
the mosquito shown in exhibit No. 6. Shown are enlarged models of the 
egg, the egg raft, the larvae, the pupae and the adult and also a cross- 
section showing the internal anatomy of the adult. Descriptions of the 
various stages and comparisons with other species are given on the labels 
and by means of various diagrams. 

Another disease that has been the scourge of mankind is yellow fever 
and the mosquito that is responsible for its transmission is shown in 
Case 7. 

Typhus is a very important disease in congested areas and during 



HOUSE-FLY Musca domestical showing four stages in its life cycle: eggs, larva, pupa 
and adult. This insect is responsible for the transmission of typhoid fever and 
filth diseases. 



war time, and is transmitted l>\ the bod) louse which is exhibited as an 
enlarged model in Case 7. I he carrier of Plague 01 I»Iack Death, a flea, 
is also presented .is a model in iliis same group. Everyone lias come into 
contact at one time or another with the common house-fly. This insect, 
although primarily a food contaminator, is also a (airier of liltli diseases 
and typhoid fever. Enlarged models in Case 7 show the ( :ggs, Larva, 
pupa and adult. Most of the models shown in Cases <"> and 7 are 
enlarged 7 1 diameters or 100,000 times the volume ol the actual spe< imens. 

Case 8 contains actual specimens and enlarged colored paintings of 
the tick which carries Rock) Mountain spotted fever, a bug that carries 
Chagas disease, and t lie (lies that are responsible for African sleeping 
sickness, Tularaemia and Filariasis. 

On the fust door Roosevelt entrance, in the section dealing with New 
f t York State exhibits, the visitor will find on the south wall in the corridor 

some examples of the butterflies and moths of New York State. These 
are actual specimens and beneath each is the cot red name. Several of 
the species also have then immature stages illustrated in color. The 
viewer should remember that this is not a complete collection of the 
butterflies and moths of New York State although most of the common 
species are represented. 

It is hoped that those individuals who have occasion to visit the 
insect and spider exhibits will find them stimulating and that they will 
be encouraged to make their own observations. Insects and spiders are 
so abundant in nature that it is not difficult for the average individual 
to find many interesting problems within his immediate surroundings. 
Many important observations on insect behavior and biology have yet 
to be made and important discoveries can be forthcoming from the 
careful amateur observer. We hope the insect hall serves as an intro- 
duction to many of the interesting phases of insect and spider life. 



92 INSECTS AND SPIDERS 






FISHES 








From earliest times, man has taken much of his food from the waters 
of the earth. The oceans, seas, lakes, ponds, rivers and streams abound 
in fishes and man has discovered many ingenious ways to catch them by 
hook, arrow, spear, net, trap and drug. 

Today, we are still fishermen in the world's waters. Much of our food 
is taken from both salt and fresh water. We depend on fish for many raw 
materials as well. Much oil, fertilizer, medicine and leather are obtained 
from fishing. Millions of people fish for a living and millions more fish 
for sport and relaxation. 

The scientist looks at fishes from a different viewpoint. He studies 
their physical structure, classifies them as to species, and finds out as 
much as he can about their distribution, migrations, feeding, choice of 
bottom, abundance, size and growth. Such information is of great value 
to other scientists, and at the same time is sought by educators, fisher- 
men, industry and the general public. 

THE EXHIBITS 

On entering the Hall of Fishes from the Hall of North American 
Forests, one faces a group of sharks sweeping down upon a helpless 
logger-head turtle. The following sharks are represented in this group: 

(1) WHITE SHARK or MAN-EATER. One of the largest sharks, 
growing to a length of 30 feet or more. This ferocious shark feeds on 
large fish and sea-turtles. It has been known to attack men and even small 
boats. Fortunately, it is apparently rare everywhere. 



93 




THE SEA ROVERS. An undersea scene showing a number of sharks attacking a sea 
turtle. 




MAKO SHARK GROUP. 




SKELETON OF A SWORDFISH. 



(2) SPOT-FIX GROUND SHARK OR SHOVELNOSE. May be 
recognized by its small second dorsal fin and very long tapering pectorals, 
in combination with a flattened, shovel-like nose. It produces living 
young, feeds chiefly on fishes and squid, and is harmless to man. 

(3) SOUTHERN GROUND SHARK. Somewhat resembles the Tiger 
Shark but differs in its very blunt snout, stouter body, very large pectoral 
fins and complete absence of spots. It lives in coastal waters and feeds 
on fishes. It is common about wharves, where it picks up refuse. It is 
not dangerous to man. 

(4) TIGER SHARK. This fish sometimes reaches a length of 30 feet 
and is a very active predatory shark. It has wide jaws and powerful 
sickle-shaped teeth. It preys on large sea-turtles, other sharks, fishes and 
invertebrates. The Tiger Shark is much dreaded in the West Indies, but 
there are no authentic records of attacks on humans. 

(5) HAMMER-HEAD SHARK. This shark is characterized by a gro- 
tesque elongation of its eye stalks. It occasionally reaches a length of 
12 feet. 

(6) SAND SHARK. This shark lives chiefly on small fishes which it 
captures in great numbers. 

THE SYSTEMATIC EXHIBIT includes a representative series of fishes, 
from the lowly "cartilege fishes," such as the sharks and rays, to the 
highest or most complexly constructed bony fishes. Noteworthy in this 
series are the mounted groups of "ganoids," including the sturgeons, 
spoonbills, bony gars and bowfins. In the alcoves and wall cases to the 
right, the visitor finds many curious forms, such as the giant catfishes, 
the handsome rooster fish, the brilliant parrot fish and butterfly fishes. 

FISHES 95 



On the lefl side ol the SKA ROVERS group is the BIOLOGICAL 
EXHIBIT. I liis considers the fish as a machine — its streamlined form, 
its main principles ol construction, its machinery for motion, and the 
mechanism ol its jaws. 

BIG GAME FISHES. At the end ol the Fish Hall, toward the Roosevelt 
Memorial, is the exhibit of Big Game Fishes, including many ol great 
size taken with rod and line, chiefly by Michael Lerner and Zane Grey. 
The huge- ocean sun fish, taken by Mr. Grey, weighed nearly a ton. 

The centra] feature of the SAILFISH GROUP is the mounted skin 
of a fish caughl oil the rocky coast of Cape San Lucas, Lower California. 
It is shown in the act of leaping from the water in a desperate effort to 
shake the hook from its jaws. 

Many other Fishes well known to anglers and sportsmen hang in these 
cases, such as salmon, trout, perch, muskellunge, barracuda, yellowback, 
bonefish, and the like. 

Three fine specimens of the fishes caught and presented by Michael 
Lerner are exhibited in special cases as if rising through the water. One 
is the mounted skin of a tuna (Thunnus thynnus) which measured 8 
feet, 3 inches in length and weighed 557 pounds. It was caught on rod 
and reel off Wedgeport, Nova Scotia. This is the common or BLUEFIN 
TUNA, also called Tunny and Horse Mackerel. It occurs in both the 
Atlantic and the Pacific, and huge specimens may reach a weight of 
over 1,000 pounds. 

The second specimen, a BLUE MARLIN (Makaira nigricans ampla), 
weighed 305 pounds and measured 10 feet in length. It was caught on 
rod and reel off Bimini, Bahamas. A MAKO SHARK (Isurus oxyrhyn- 
chus), also caught off Bimini, is showm lunging above the surface of the 
water to catch an escaping albacore. 

The tuna, the swordfish, the marlin, the sailfish and the mackerel 
are all related, belonging to the same suborder of fishes, the Scom- 
broids, a group which reaches the acme of streamlined form and speed. 

On the right of the exit from the Fish Hall is a large exhibit, THE 
LIFE HISTORY OF THE SWORDFISH, tracing the development of 
the swordfish from a tiny egg to the adult. 






96 FISHES 






AMPHIBIANS 
AND REPTILES 




The branch of biology that deals with the amphibians and reptiles 
is known as herpetology. In its broadest sense herpetology is concerned 
with the origin, evolution, distribution and classification of the amphib- 
ians and reptiles, their relationships to their environment, their life 
histories, their habits and behavior, and their structures and their func- 
tions. Herpetology is also concerned with the economic importance of 
amphibians and reptiles, and their bearing on the activities of man. 
The study of extinct amphibians and reptiles is more often included 
under paleontology. 

Amphibians are backboned animals with a moist glandular skin. 
If scales are present they are usually hidden in the skin, and amphibians 
lack the protective covering of feathers or hair seen in higher vertebrates. 
The eggs of amphibians are usually laid in water or at least in moist 
places, and most of them pass through a fish-like, water-dwelling stage 
before metamorphosing or changing to the adult form. There are three 
major groups of living Amphibia: (1) the caecilians (Apoda), super- 
ficially worm-like, limbless creatures, include burrowing as well as 
water-dwelling forms living in the tropics; (2) the salamanders (Urodela) 
or tailed amphibians, usually with four limbs, are largely confined to the 
northern hemisphere; (3) the frogs (Anura), many of them popularly 
called "toads," are the tailless amphibians, otherwise characterized by 
their relatively long hind limbs and their hopping or leaping mode of 
progression. The three groups of Amphibia comprise a total of approxi- 
mately 2500 living species. 

Amphibians were derived from lobe-finned fish ancestors well over 
three hundred million years ago. Some fifty million vears later one 
amphibian stock gave rise to the reptiles. Thus the amphibians are 
classed above the fishes, but below the reptiles. 

97 



Reptiles are backboned animals with dry, scale-covered skins. Some 
reptiles give birth to theii young, but most of them la) eggs, always on 
land. Upon emergence from the egg, the reptile is similai to its parents 
and equipped to obtain oxygen from the air. I he major groups of 
reptiles include: (1) the unties (Testudinata); (2) the alligators and 
crocodiles (Crocodilia); (3) the "beak-heads" (Rhynchocephalia) repre 
sented l>\ a single species, the reiki Tuatara, Sphaenodon punctatum, ol 
New Zealand; and (4) the lizards and snakes (Squamata), respectively 
included as subgroups ol ;i single ordei owing to tin existence "I snake* 
like characters in several lizards and the retention ol limb-girdles in 
some snakes. 

Approximately 7000 kinds (species) of reptiles are still in existence, 
and many more passed into oblivion or are known onh from their fos- 
sili/ed remains. The reptiles flourished at an earl) period of their 
evolution, which began well over two hundred million years ago. The 
original stock gave rise to such gigantic forms as some of the dinosaurs^ 
Other Stocks led independently to the warm-blooded mammals and birds. 
But several other stocks, including the larger "ruling reptiles." failed 
to survive. The modern reptiles include few species of great si/e: some 
marine tin ties max teach a ton in weight and crocodiles 24 feet in length 
may weigh even mote. The largest surviving lizard is scat (eh ten feet 
long, but some snakes are believed to exceed thirty feet. 

Unlike the birds and mammals, which produce heat internally, the 
amphibians and reptiles depend largely upon sources of heat outsidd 
the body. Some birds migrate to warmer climates in winter but others 
can remain abroad throughout the year, even in colder climates. Sim- 
ilarly, some mammals are continuously active, although others are forced 
to retire underground to avoid extremes of heat or cold. In this respect 
they are not unlike the reptiles, from which they differ in being heated 
internally while they are active. 

One of the major research projects of the Department of Amphibians 
and Reptiles is concerned with the regulation of the body temperature 
in amphibians and reptiles. Investigations have disclosed the fact that 
many reptiles can maintain relatively high as well as fairly constant 
temperatures while they are abroad and active. They bask or seek out 
warm ground to raise the body temperature. When they become too hot 
they retire to shade or to shelter underground where their heat can be 
dissipated. Despite the fact that reptiles depend upon heat derived 
directly from the sun or from their surroundings, many species maintain 
body temperatures higher than those of man and other mammals. Thus, 
while reptiles are commonly termed "cold-blooded." it has become 
apparent that, when active, many reptiles are quite as warm as their 
more advanced relatives, the birds and mammals. 

It is of fundamental importance, however, that the internal heating 
mechanism of birds and most mammals provides them with greater 
freedom in their activities than the amphibians and the reptiles possess. 
Nevertheless, it seems manifest that many elements of the highly com- 
plicated mechanism of heat production in the mammals had their origin 

98 



in the reptiles. The same portion <>l the brain thai is sensitive to tem 
berature changes in mammals is also heal sensitive in reptiles, rhus, 
l>\ studying the origin and evolution <>l the mechanism ol heal regula- 
tion in reptiles and the more primitive mammals, it is possible to im 
prove our understanding ol heal regulation in man. a matter ol medical 
importance 1 . 

The Departmenl of Amphibians and Reptiles has also carried oul 
research projects concerned with the venom and the venom apparatus ol 
cobras, their distributions and relationships, matters of particulai nn 
portance in dealing with problems of snake bite and the therapeutic 
pses ol venom. Similarly the Department has conducted a thorough 
Investigation of the one lamil\ comprised of venomous lizards, the Gila 
monster of the United States and its Mexican allies. 

Other studies h\ the scientific staff include those made of snake 
locomotion, of methods of eradicating venomous snakes, of the sense 
organs employed by snakes in their recognition of enemies, of tooth and 
Jang replacement in reptiles, of homing behavior in toads, and of 
moisture loss in relation to habitat selection in reptiles. Many investiga- 
tions have dealt with the classification of individual groups of reptiles 
and amphibians, or with the faunas of individual areas. Few of these 
projects yield results of direct economic significance. Many of them are 
much more concerned with the elucidation of evolutionary or distribu- 
tional principles. It is of value to learn how and where amphibians or 
reptiles live, how they reproduce, or how they are affected by their 
environment, but not only because this information is intrinsically 
interesting. Largely it is a matter of extending the scope of human 
knowledge and in part it is a matter of satisfying man's curiosity con- 
cerning the unknown. For a thorough understanding of our world 
depends upon the assemblage and interpretation of precise information 
concerning all living things that surround us, and that constitute our 
environment in its broadest sense. And only by disregarding immediate 
utility in our assemblage of information is the widest utility to be served 
in the end. 

THE EXHIBITS 

The exhibits in the Hall of Living Reptiles depict representatives 
of all the important groups of amphibians and reptiles now surviving. 
As a means of furthering the scientific study of amphibians and reptiles. 
the Museum maintains one of the largest collections in existence. It 
comprises approximately 150,000 specimens and a large percentage of 
the species. However, scarcely 700 specimens have been used in exhibits, 
which display nearly 400 species, or only one out of each twenty-four that 
are known to science. For the individual specimens on display have been 
carefully selected to illustrate some peculiarity, to show some interesting 
attribute of the species or to illustrate a biological principle. 

Upon coming into the hall from the Insect Hall to the south, the 
exhibits one first sees are the floor cases. These display many of the 
larger reptiles, the relatively gigantic crocodilians, the large land- 

AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES 99 



dwelling tortoises, and fresh water turtles, and the venomous snakes of 
maximum-sized species, including the king cobra, longest of all venomouj 
snakes, the two largest kinds ol ilu- rattlesnakes, and the larger of the 
two species ol venomous lizards, interspersed with these are smaller 
habitat groups showing one of the large monitor lizards, an inhabitant 
ol the regions occupied l>\ the Asiatic cobra and Russell's viper. Other 
Boot groups depict the timbei rattlesnake and the copperhead, the two 
snakes most often responsible for injuries from snake bite in the easteri 
portion ol the United States. 

At the right ol the entrance leading from the Insect Hall is the splen- 
did «roup depicting the "dragon lizards ol Komodo," the Largest of living 
lizards, with a maximum length approaching ten feet. These great 
lizards, with a range confined to the East Indian Islands of Komodo, 
Padar, Rintja and Flores, are members ol the monitor lamih ( Varanidaem 
I his group ol lizards is no longer represented in North America where 
it existed in prehistoric times, but it is now widely distributed in Africa. 
Asia and the Australian region. The exhibit shows the giant monitor in 
its native habitat on Komodo Island, where these lizards were collected 
and studied by the William Douglas Burden Expedition. The lizards 
were attracted by the carcasses of wild hogs, and the scene depicts a 
gigantic male ripping the meat from the dead animal as another lizard 
swallows a great chunk of meat already torn loose. A third lizard 



DRAGON LIZARDS OF KOMODO. (Varanus komodoensis). A male dragon lizard 
emerges from the dense jungle in search of food, using his long forked tongue like 
that of a snake to detect odoriferous particles in the air. This he does by inserting 
the tips of the tongue into a "pocket" of nerve endings in the roof of the mouth. 
A second smaller specimen crouches in a den that it has dug under the roots of a 
tree. This species, the largest lizard, is still in existence on the islands of Komodo, 
Padar, Rintja and Flores in the East Indies. 



( 






MADAGASCAR CHAMAELEON. Among lizards, only the chamaeleon projects its 
extremley long tongue with great rapidity and accuracy to ensnare its insect prey 
at a distance that may exceed the length of its body. As in the frogs, the end of 
the tongue is sticky so that the insect is drawn back into the mouth with the tongue. 



emerges from the dense undergrowth, its huge tongue thrust out as it 
picks up odorous particles that are carried to organs of smell in the 
palate, thus helping the reptile to find its food. 

These huge lizards inhabit a region where there were no large car- 
nivorous cats, wolves or similar mammals until dogs were introduced 
by man. Free from competition with such animals, the giant lizards 
became predators on the small deer, wild pigs and birds of the region, 
assuming the role ordinarily filled by the meat-eating mammals. The 
failure of the larger carnivorous mammals to reach Komodo and the 
adjacent islands therefore accounts for the survival of the largest lizard 
in these tiny islands where it remained undiscovered until 1912. 

There is a vast amount of popular misinformation concerning snakes 
that is essentially folklore. Many erroneous notions are widely believed 
by otherwise well-informed people. Snake yarns, many of them dating 
back at least to Aristotle, are commonly accepted even though they 
endow the snake with capacities bordering on the supernatural. Thus 
an exhibit that contrasts the snakes of folklore with snakes as they actu- 
ally exist seeks to correct these mistaken beliefs. This exhibit, labelled 
"SNAKES OF FABLE AND FACT," lies to the left of the entrance. 
Beyond this, along the left wall, the first of a series of exhibits in sunken 
panels illustrates the basic differences between amphibians and reptiles, 
what these animals are and why there are reasons for the belief that 
snakes were derived from ancestral lizard stock. 



AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES 



101 



Continuing along the wall, this series of exhibits illustrates such 
biological principles as ADAPTATION, NATURAL SELECTION, 
ADAPTIVE RADIATION, ISOLATION and its evolutionary signif- 
icance in the development ol differences in form or habitat preference, 
the phenomena ol PARALLEL EVOLUTION, and the selective im- 
portance "i PAREN I \1. C \K1 . and ol A 1 IR\( HNG or FRIGHT- 
ENING DEVICES. Anothei exhibit along the same wall explains the 
nature ol the venom apparatus and the methods used in treating snake 
bite. 

The corridor enclosed 1)\ the wall containing the sunken panels 
provides access to a series ol hahii.it groups. These portray American 
reptiles and amphibians engaged in their normal activities tinder natural 
conditions. The subjects in their order from the i'ront of the corridor 
are: the LEATHERBACK TURTLE; the (.IAN I SALAMANDER 
or Hellbender; the BULLFROG: a NEW ENGLAND MARSHLAND 
IN SPRING: WEST INDIAN TREE FROGS: REPTILES OF THE 
SOUTHWEST: the GALAPAGOS IGUANA: the RHINOGEROS 



SURINAM TOAD. The female Surinam Toad (Pipa pipa) of northern South America 
carries her eggs in shallow pockets on the back until they hatch as fully formed 
froglets. After being fertilized internally, the female deposits eggs by extruding 
the cloaca over her back. The male, perched on her back, presses the eggs into 
the female's back; each egg separately sinks into a pocket that forms to receive it. 





RHINOCEROS IGUANA. The Rhinoceros Iguana (Cyclura cornuta), the most powerful 
lizard in the Americas, inhabits the deserts of the West Indian Island of Hispanioia. 
The males shown here are fighting over territory that one of them is defending 
against the other as he will against all intruding males of the same species. The 
male on the left is undergoing his periodical shedding as evidenced by the patch 
of skin that is coming off his body. 



IGUANA; and the GILA MONSTER. At the end of the corridor lies 
the FLORIDA CYPRESS SWAMP group. 

Each of these groups emphasizes some noteworthy amphibian or rep- 
tile and its activities. The leatherback is the largest turtle in existence, 
with a maximum weight approaching a ton, and a wide distribution in 
the oceans of the world. The giant salamander, more or less strictly a 
stream dweller, is not the longest but probably the bulkiest amphibian 
in North America. It is one of the more primitive tailed amphibians, 
fish-like in some features of its reproduction. It is shown with its 
enormous eggs, laid in long bead-like strings. From his vent the male 
emits a cloudy substance containing the male germ cells, which fertilizes 
the large eggs that he remains on hand to guard. 

In contrast, the bullfrog in the adjacent habitat group lays its eggs 
in clumps on the surface of pools. It is not so securely tied to the water, 



AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES 



103 



for it preys upon a great variety oi smaller animals on land as well as 
in the pools. The breeding activities <>l frogs are exemplified in the 
New England marshland exhibit, which shows male frogs and toads 
calling to attract mates whose eggs will be laid and fertilized in the 

adjacent water. \e\t in oidci is the dioiama showing the activities of 

tret frogs, and the small lizards (ailed geckos as the) would be observed 
by a naturalist abroad with his flashlight during the night on a West 
Indian island. 

Reptiles, particularly the iguanas and their relatives in the New 
World, thrive in arid regions. I he deserts ol the southwestern portions 
ol the United States extend into the peninsula of Baja California where 
such bizarre reptiles ;is the horned lizards share their habitat with the 
much larger herbivorous chuckawallas. Relatives of these desert dwellers 
have also reached many of the islands off the coast of the Americas. In 
the Galapagos Islands, oil the coast of Ecuador, there are two large 
iguanas. One is confined to the land, but the other, the marine iguana 
more abundantly represented in the next group, lives on the rock) shores 
of these volcanic islands. Unlike any other lizard, it swims offshore to 
feed on marine plants. 

Quite unlike this marine iguana, the rhinoceros iguana of the West 
Indian island of Santo Domingo inhabits the extremelv arid portions of 
the island. The group illustrates the life history of the lizard, which 
is sufficiently powerful to dig its own burrows in the hard fossiliferous 
limestone. The eggs, buried in the sand, are deposited in July. When 
they hatch, the young iguanas push their way to the surface, sometimes 
carrying portions of the egg shell with them. 

Near the end of the corridor is the Gila monster group, showing the 
only venomous lizard in the United States in its desert surroundings. 
The desert tortoise and the Sonoran whipsnake, other reptiles inhabiting 
the same region, are not molested by the Gila monster although their 
eggs, as well as those of lizards, are dug from the earth and eaten. The 
Gila monster also devours the eggs of birds and their nestlings, and not 
infrequently preys on juvenile ground squirrels, and sometimes eats 
smaller lizards. 

Exhibits outside the corridor at the end of the hall illustrate how- 
species arise as the result of isolation on mountain tops. To the right 
of the exit are two groups illustrating various ways that reptiles deposit 
their eggs. A diagram in between explains the significant advances in 
reproduction represented bv the reptile egg, which contains a large 
amount of volk and is similar in many respects to that of the birds and 
the egg-laying mammals. The reptile egg allows the developing embrvo 
to obtain its oxygen directly from the air. Moreover, it contains other 
structures that eliminate the need for water so that reptiles are not 
so restricted in their habitats as their amphibian ancestors must have 
been. 

On the outer side of the hall there are series of reptile skeletons 
exemplifying the various modifications in bony structure, venomous 

104 AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES 




SKELETON OF A PYTHON. This reticulated python (python reticulatus) measured 
twenty-two feet and nine inches. The skeleton is made up of numerous vertebrae 
to which a pair of ribs is attached on each side. Snakes do not "walk on their 
ribs"; it is the muscles attached to these ribs, not the ribs, that enable the snake 
to move. 



snakes noteworthy because ol i hi ii potential danger to man, and typical 
representatives <>l several main groups of amphibians and reptiles. Mam 
ol the cases on this side ol the hall answer such questions as "How do 
reptiles and amphibians feed?" or 'How do they breed?" and "What is 
the economic value ol reptiles and amphibians?" 

The Department ol Amphibians and Reptiles is, at one and the 
same time, a Storehouse, a schoolroom, a bureau ol information, a re- 
search center and a source of educational and aitistic exhibits. It 
encompasses the activities of a secondary school as well as those of a 
university, for it is not only searching oul new facts and teaching new 
conclusions from them but also presenting this information in such a 
manner that it can be grasped by the elemental \ student or by the 
interested layman. 

Amphibians and Reptiles of the New York Region 

An exhibit showing the species found within a radius of fifty miles 
of New York City may be seen in the corridor of the Roosevelt Memorial 
Wing on the first floor. It is intended especially for the use of those who 
want to identify amphibians or reptiles encountered in their back yards. 
It is of general interest in showing the number of kinds of salamanders, 
frogs, turtles, lizards and snakes encountered within a limited region sur- 
rounding the metropolitan area. 



106 AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES 



BIRDS 





The science of bird study in all its aspects is known as ornithology. 
Like other branches of zoology, the study of animal life, ornithology began 
mainly as an attempt to determine the relationships, and to present a rea- 
sonable system of classification, of all birds, both living and extinct. In 
other words, the first challenge to an ornithologist was to describe and 
name the birds of the world and to divide them into species, genera, fam- 
ilies, and higher categories of kinship. This end has now been attained, 
perhaps to a greater extent than in any other class of animals. Somewhat 
more than 27,000 forms of birds (species and subspecies) are known. 

The curve of new discoveries has long passed its steep rise and has 
flattened out, owing to the fact that on an average only about two new 
species of birds are now found annually in all the world. Possibly fewer 
than 100 yet unknown species remain to be discovered. The situation 
contrasts strongly with that in the very much larger class of insects in 
which it is virtually certain that hundreds of thousands of species are 
yet to be found and described. 

The foregoing statement does not mean that the day of systematic 
study in ornithology is past. There is still plenty to learn about the 
relationships of the higher groups (families and orders), besides which 
new methods in systematica, as applied to populations of closely related 
birds, are constantly leading to a better understanding of the processes 
of evolution. 

It is true, neverthless, that about the beginning of the present 
century, when research in experimental zoology was coming to the fore, 
the contemporary interest in birds began to fall into a certain disrepute 
as a scientific subject. Professional careers for ornithologists were at that 
time limited in the United States chiefly to museums and to a few federal 
or state departments. 



107 



Now, happily, all of that is changed for the better, and we mav con- 
fidently report that ornithology leads in several branches of biological 
investigation, such as those relating to speciation and the steps of 
evolution, to animal psychology (behavior), to the study of population 
dynamic s. geographical distribution and ecology. 

Migration, homing and direction-finding, the whole field of the bird's 
innate abilities, its "mind" and its instinctive, as distinguished from its 
learned, responses, its genetics and adaptations are today being wideh 
studied by critical experimental methods. A quantitative and statistical 
approach has taken the place of the formei aim of random observation 
coupled with the amassing of collections of skins, eggs and nests. 

It is the living bird that has come to offer the most fruitful oppor- 
tunity for research and that ties up most closely with the study of other 
animals, including man. As a restdt of all this change and growth, mam 
universities today seek trained ornithologists as regular members of their 
biological faculties, and the future of the discipline of ornithology has 
never seemed brighter or more comprehensive. 

THE WHITNEY WING 

The Whitney Wing of the Museum, newest section of our structure. 
was a joint gift of the late Harry Payne Whitney and the City of New 
York. It is wholly occupied by the Museum's Department of Birds. Three 
of its eight floors are devoted completely or in part to public exhibits. 

The Whitney Memorial Hall of South Pacific Birds 

The main entrance of this wing leads into Whitney Memorial Hall 
from the New York State Theodore Roosevelt Memorial. The display 
represents bird life on islands in the Pacific Ocean, covering an expanse 
from Bering Strait southward beyond New Zealand and from the 
Galapagos Archipelago and small islets off the coast of Peru westward 
to the Australian barrier reef and New Guinea. Foyers at the ends of the 
hall contain maps and mural texts which describe both the purpose and 
plan of the exhibits. Here also are bronze busts of the late Messrs. 
William C. Whitney and Harry Payne Whitney, father and son, to whom 
the building and its contents are dedicated. 

The design of this hall is intended to give the visitor the illusion 
that he is standing in the middle of the Pacific Ocean and viewing 
scenes in every direction throughout hundreds or even thousands of miles. 
In short, the hall represents the Pacific itself, reduced to extremely small 
compass. A common horizon crosses the background of all eighteen 
habitat groups and from these the sky appears to rise behind the fronts 
of the cases and to be continuous with the blue dome that forms the 
ceiling of the hall. Suspended by invisible wires in this vault are ex- 
amples of oceanic birds which inhabit the Pacific from the tropical 
environment depicted near the northern end of the hall to the edge of 
the Antarctic toward the south end. It is through the latter that the 
visitor approaches from the Roosevelt Memorial building. 

The eighteen habitat groups, beginning at the right of the entrance, 
are as follows: 

108 



SHIP-FOLLOWERS. The point of view is from the deck of an old- 
fashioned sailing vessel in the open sea south ;md c;ist <>i New Zealand, 

in the /one ol the westcrb winds. In the background is the \\hitn<\ 
South Sea Expedition schooner, the "France," which served the American 
Museum during tin \r;us in Polynesia. The expedition collected main 
ol" the specimens used throughout this hall. 

Pelagi< birds shown in the exhibit comprise ;i variet) of albatrosses 
and petrels, especially characteristic of the higher southern latitudes. 

SAMOA. A view from the hills of the island of Savaii toward the ocean. 
TIh- site is at the point where forest meets more Open slopes. The birds 
include those of both woodland and grassland, such as fruit pigeons. 
ducks, members of the parrot family and many smaller forms. Especially 
noteworthy is the Tooth-billed Pigeon (Didunculus), a very peculiar 
member of the pigeon family, confined entirely to a few islands of the 
Samoan group. 

TUAMOTU. The island of Hao, an atoll, with the coral-grown lagoon 
at the left and the surf of the open ocean on the right. In the distant 
background, tree-and-shrub-covered segments of the island ring can be 
seen. Among the coconut palms and other typical beach vegetation of a 
coral island are man-o'-war birds, boobies, a nesting Red-tailed Tropic- 
bird, several terns, including the white Fairy Tern which lays its egg 
on rough bark or in the crotch of a bush, and also a number of shore 
birds of both migratory and resident species. The example of the latter 
is the rare or nearly extinct Polynesian Sandpiper, one of the smallest 
members of its family, of which two stand in the left foreground. 

The Tuamotu archipelago occupies a huge area in the central South 
Pacific and is one of the most extensive island groups on earth. 

MARQUESAS. A scene in the volcanic island of Nukuhiva, showing a 
rugged shore line and ridges dissected by the sea, as viewed from a height 
of nearly 2,000 feet. On the right is the Valley of "Typee," famous as the 
locale of Herman Melville's romance of the same name. 

The birds include the giant pigeon which exists only at the island of 
Nukuhiva, a smaller native fruit pigeon, sw r ifts of the "edible-nest" group, 
warblers and Old World flycatchers peculiar to this island, a forest rail, 
a ground dove and a pair of wild chickens or jungle fowl, the ancestors 
of w r hich were widely distributed in the Pacific by the original Polynesian 
immigrants. 

PERUVIAN GUANO ISLANDS. Looking southward across the Bay of 
Pisco, Peru, from the southern island of the Chincha group. The scene 
shows the rainless coast of Peru where climatic conditions are responsible 
for the accumulation on such islands of sea bird manure, known as guano, 
which was the fertilizer of the Incas and other ancient farming peoples 
of the west coast of South America. 

Despite the exhaustion of the old supplies of guano, it has again be- 
come an important commercial resource in Peru and the industrv is 
now operated upon a scientific conservational basis. 

The three principal species of guano-producing birds, all of which 

birds 109 








PERUVIAN GUANO ISLAND GROUP IN THE WHITNEY HALL OF PACIFIC BIRDS. This 
exhibit shows several guano islands in the Bay of Pisco, Peru, with their bird life. 
The guano-producing birds represented are the Peruvian cormorant, pelican and 
booby. Also included are the Peruvian penguin, Inca terns and two species of gulls. 



arc peculiar to the coasts of Peru and northern Chile, arc shown. These 
are the Peruvian Cormorant, the Peruvian Booby, and the Peruvian 
Pelican. Other birds of interest are the white-moust ached Inca Tern, 
two species of gulls, and on the rocks of the painted background a dis- 
tant cluster of Peruvian Penguins. 

GALAPAGOS. This scene is in the heart of the Galapagos archipelago 
looking from James Island across the water toward Albemarle, the 
largest island of the group. The Galapagos lie on the equator about 600 
miles west of the South American coast. They are famous as the native 
home of many peculiar and long-isolated species of both plants and 
animals, and they received their first notable scientific fame as a result 
of the visit of Charles Darwin in H.M.S. "Beagle." in 1835. 

Man-o '-war birds, herons, an owl. mockingbirds and hawks are among 
the birds shown in the exhibit. Most of these are remarkable because of 
their total lack of shyness in the presence of man, a trait doubtless acquired 
during residence throughout a very long period in a land without man 
or other mammalian enemies. 

The most important of the Galapagos birds from a biological point 
of view are several species of small finches which show a great variation 
in the si/e of the bill. These mostly belong to the genus Geospiza, and 
Darwin's observations of them in the field are believed to have had much 
to do with his original ideas on the principal of natural selection as an 
explanation of evolutionary change. 

HAWAII. This exhibit shows a deep and steep valley on the Hawaiian 
island of Kauai, with slopes and gorges going down about 4.000 feet from 
the high plateau of the island toward low banks above the beach. The 



110 



opposite or windward sicU- of Kauai is extremely rain) and, on the i i *_^ 1 1 1 . 
fragments of storm clouds are shown whisking out over the valley, which, 
however, is not ver) humid because most of the rain falls farthei to 
windward. 

The Hawaiian archipelago, like 1 1 m t of the Galapagos, h;is been 
isolated from other land areas throughout man) ages, and some of the 
native birds and other animals show even more peculiar and pronounced 
evolutionary changes. The Hawaiian honeycreepers (Drepanididae), for 
example, are obviously members of a single family of small land birds, 
yet the specializations in the bills of several species range from short, 
Stout, almost parrot-like beaks to extremely long, pointed and sickle- 
shaped organs. Feeding habits ate, of course, correlated with such strnc 
tines, for the Stoutest-billed species can handle hard seeds and fruits, 
whereas those with long slender bills must use them in taking nectar or 
small insects and spiders from inside (lowers. Several examples of these 
hone\ eaters are shown, but it would be impossible to display the whole 
range of variation in bills without drawing upon species inhabiting othei 
islands of the Hawaiian group. 

At the right of the group three geese are shown in flight, the spec ies 
being peculiar to Hawaii. In the air, down the valley, are two White- 
tailed Tropic-birds, and the small land birds include one or more species 
having tufts of brightly-colored feathers which were used by the ancient 
Hawaiians in making the famous feather cloaks worn by chiefs of high 
rank. 

LAYSAN. Albatrosses, of which there are some seventeen species in the 
w r orld, resort during the nesting season to remote oceanic islands. There 
they carry on their remarkably elaborate courtship procedure, lav the 
single egg, and rear their chick before they depart once more on the 
oceanic wanderings which continue tin til the return of the next breeding 
season. 

Most albatrosses inhabit the higher latitudes of the southern oceans 
and no species regularly enters the North Atlantic. The North Pacific 
Ocean, however, is the home of three kinds of albatrosses, two of which 
are here shown on the nesting ground of Laysan Island, a leeward outlier 
of the Hawaiian archipelago. 

The two species shown are the w r hite-breasted Laysan Albatross and 
the all-dark, Black-footed Albatross. Both carry on an extraordinary 
ritual, commonly known as a courtship dance, although it really par- 
takes of community behavior. The birds on the nesting ground salute, 
cross bills and bow not only to their own mates but to other albatrosses 
of both sexes. 

A pair of the small native teal of Laysan, found nowhere else in the 
world, is also show r n in this exhibit. Others displayed are nesting sea 
birds, such as boobies, man-o'-war birds and petrels (which occupy 
burrows in the sandy soil), and shore birds that make the island a rest- 
ing place during their long migration from Alaskan breeding grounds 
to a winter home among islands of the south seas — Bristle-thighed 
Curlews, Golden Plovers, and others. 

BIRDS 1 1 1 



\ I W CALEDONIA. This large island, which is east of Australia, 
lies on one of the western Pacific arcs or submerged mountain ranges. 
Ii has had no connection with any other land area since it rose from the 
ocean in the- earl) pan ol the Age ol Mammals. 

Because- iis life has been obtained In natural means from places across 
the- sea, it is interesting to note that, among the <ij species of New 
Caledonian land birds, 6 belong to widespread Pacific species, 35 appear 
to have come lrom Australia, and 23 from the New Guinea region. 

New Caledonia has five genera of birds found nowhere else, these 
comprising a pigeon, a parrot, a warbler, a honey-eater, and the strange 
flightless heron-like Kagu. The- last is a \ei\ extraordinary bird which 
stems to have no near relatives anywhere- else in the world. 

The site of this exhibit is on the northeasterly coast of New Caledonia, 
at an altitude of slightly more than 1,000 feet. The birds, in addition to 
the Kagu (on the ground), include a fruit dove, kingfisher, cuckoo, war- 
blers, flycatchers, whistlers, a wood-swallow, starling, honeyeaters and a 
parrot finch. 

SOLOMON ISLANDS. Since the United States armed forces made 
history at Guadalcanal Island, the savage Solomons no longer seem so 
far away as they formerly did. In this exhibit of bird life in a hot, humid 
and mountainous archipelago, the background shows Guadalcanal itself. 
The foreground represents a small islet off the southeastern end of Guadal- 
canal, with a cluster of native huts, and a garden in which coconut palms, 
bananas, papaya, cassava, breadfruit, taro and sweet potato are growing 
on the site of a recently-felled tropical jungle. 

The Solomon Islands have a rich bird fauna, with 128 species of land 
birds alone. The 21 species shown in the exhibit can therefore be only 
a representative selection. They include the following: the Brahminv 
Kite, a bird of prey; the brush fowl, or megapode, which lays its eggs in 
mounds of rotting vegetation so that the heat of fermentation may hatch 
them; several species of doves, parrots, lories and cockatoos, including 
the King Parrot, of which the male is green and the female a vivid red; 
the Whiskered Tree Swift and various other colorful representatives of 
Old World families, such as rollers, cuckoo-shrikes, flycatchers, sunbirds 
and flower-peckers. 

PHILIPPINES. This exhibit shows historic Bataan Peninsula on the 
island of Luzon, as viewed from nearly 3,000 feet above the sea at the 
summit of Mount Cayapo. In the middle of the background is Corregidor, 
famous island fortress, lying in the channel between Manila Bay and the 
China Sea. The scars of war have been rapidly overgrown by tropical 
vegetation and the forests and animal life of the region are relatively 
unspoiled. 

The Philippines have about 325 species of native breeding birds. Of 
these, 47 are shown in the exhibit, a number not more than half those 
that might readily be seen at the site. 

PAPUA. The great island of New Guinea is almost like a continent 
in the wealth of its plant and animal life. Lying in tropical latitudes, 

112 BIRDS 



its \.ist mountain ranges nevertheless rise to the level of snow, as shown 
in the other New Guinea exhibit in this hall, the second beyond ihis. 
The Landscape ol the Papuan group shows the Laloki Rivei gorge 

behind Port Moresby in the southern foothills ol the Owen Stanley 
Mountains. Although the site is only 9° south ol the equator, the heal 
is never oppressive here. Rainfall averages 90 inches annually in the 
oak. tree-fern and beech forests of the mountains, but onl) about one- 
third of that in the eiu al\ puis dot ted grasslands behind the Pott. \i 
the right is the spectacular Rouna waterfall, 1,000 feet above sea level. 
The area is an historic one because it was near here that Allied louts, 
in bitter jungle warfare, tinned back the tide of the [apanese onslaught 
in the Second World War. The area is now a tranquil wilderness in- 
habited b\ such species as the birds of paradise, crowned pigeons, casso- 
waries, and bower birds shown in the group. More than 100 species of 
native birds were observed in the vicinity of the Rouna Falls. Thirty- 
nine of these are displayed in the exhibit. 

ISLANDS IN BERING SEA. Little Diomede and Big Diomede are 
two islands in Bering Sea, 50 miles south of the Arctic Circle and about 
midway between Alaska and Siberia. 

The site of this exhibit is the foot of a 1,000-foot cliff at the south 
end of Little Diomede Island. Here, protected by isolation as well as 



ARCTIC SEA BIRD LIFE. From a group in the Whitney Hall of Pacific Birds. The group 
depicts the lower part of a 1000-foot cliff on Little Diomede Island in Bering Sea. 
Here myriads of sea birds come each summer to lay their eggs and rear their young. 



i 




mS9 f^% 






. £} 




THE GREAT BARRIER REEF, AUSTRALIA. Most of the flying birds in this view are 
sooty terns. The darker ones are part of a colony of brown noddies. 

by the inaccessible nature of their haunts, myriads of murres, guillemots, 
puffins, auklets, gulls and cormorants come each summer to lay their 
eggs and rear their young. 

SNOW MOUNTAINS OF NEW GUINEA. Among its 650 species 
New Guinea has many birds not known in Australia, though the two 
land masses are only 100 miles apart at Torres Strait. A drop of 50 feet 
in the sea level would probably join them. On a map of the United States, 
New Guinea would reach from New York City to Colorado, and its 
interior offers some of the largest unexplored areas on earth. This ex- 
hibit depicts a scene on Lake Habbema, 11,000 feet above sea level, 
looking southward toward Mount Wilhelmina. Parrots, birds of para- 
dise and several kinds of flower-visiting birds, as honey eaters and 
flowerpeckers. are among the most characteristic birds of the area. Even 
altitudinal level has its own bird life, and few, if any, of these mountain 
species can be found in the tropical lowlands. Many of the Snow Moun- 
tain birds are very rare in collections, since they occur nowhere else in 
the world. 



114 




AN EXTINCT MOA OF NEW ZEALAND, reconstructed from a subfossil skeleton. 

AUSTRALIAN BARRIER REEF. The Great Barrier Reef, which for 
more than 1,200 miles guards the east coast of Australia, is the largest 
coral reef in the world. In the extensive lagoon between the Barrier and 
the mainland are countless lesser reefs, islets of coral limestone and, 
near shore, higher islands which are detached fragments of the continental 
rock. Many of these have collected wind-blown soil and have acquired 
a luxuriant, even if limited, plant life. Others remain relatively bare, 
still far enough above the reach of the ocean to furnish breeding grounds 
for great colonies of sea fowl. 

The birds of the Great Barrier are mostly of widespread types, as is 
characteristic of the avifaunas of beaches and small islands. They include 
a noisy colony of Brown Noodies and Sooty Terns, the fledgling young 
of the latter being the dark speckled birds which look so unlike their 
parents. Australian Silver Gulls, Crested Terns, Reef Herons in both 
gray and white phases, and man-o'-war birds complete the list of resi- 
dent oceanic species. The sandpipers or tattlers in the beach pool are 
winter migrants from northern Asiatic nesting grounds. The white 



BIRDS 1 1 5 



land birds painted in flight are Nutmeg Pigeons bound, perhaps, toward 
I ru i i trees growing on the islets. 

1 IJI forms pan of one ol the several great island arcs to the east of 
Australia and New Guinea and comprises more than 200 separate islands 
and islets. I he larger members are mountainous, and main are sur- 
rounded by fringing reefs <>l coral. 

Fiji has aboul 54 species of land birds, or only hall as mam as the 
Solomon Islands which are hundreds of miles nearer the ultimate source 
ol suppl) in the Australasian region. The principal Fijian types are birds 
o| families known to be able to make long colonizing (lights across the 
ocean, such as parrots, pigeons, kingfishers, starlings and white-eyes. 

In the Silky Dove and the Golden Dove, Fiji has two of the most 
spectacular of all birds. Both species are peculiar to this group of islands, 
and one of them only to Viti Levu Island, the site of the exhibit. The 
thirteen additional birds shown all belong to families found at other 
Pacific islands, but the species are mostly peculiar to Fiji. Most of the 
aboriginal Fijian birds are confined to mountain districts, while the, 
common birds of town and village are more widespread or recently 
introduced kinds. 

NEW ZEALAND. The view looks across Lake Brunner in the South 
Island Alps. The period is that of several centuries ago when many species 
of the heavy and flightless moas lived as browsing and grazing birds in 
this isolated part of the temperate world. Both plants and birds shown 
belong to the older life of the islands, antedating the many kinds intro- 
duced by man that have since become very conspicuous in New Zealand. 
The landscape is on the western or rainy side of the mountains at the 
edge of tall forests of almost tropical luxuriance. 

The flora and fauna of New Zealand are a product of marked isola- 
tion, the next large land area, Australia, being 1,200 miles away. Four- 
footed mammals appear never to have reached New Zealand until they 
were transported there by man. In the absence of enemies and of com- 
peting grazing mammals, the peculiar and highly specialized moas took 
the place of antelopes, wild cattle, etc. that lived in so many of the 
world's continental areas. Euryapteryx, a moderate-sized moa recon- 
structed from a subfossil skeleton, is centered in the exhibit. In the 
extreme left is a large flightless rail, the Takahe or Xotornis, long thought 
to be extinct in New Zealand but recently rediscovered. Other birds 
shown include several native ducks, together with a pigeon, a falcon, an 
owl, three species of parrots and several kinds of honey-eaters and other 
song birds known only from New Zealand. 

SNARES ISLAND. To the south of New Zealand, in the west wind 
zone, lies a small and rarely visited subantarctic group of islets which are 
called the Snares because they were regarded as a navigational hazard. 
Since they have never been inhabited by man or such of his domestic 
associates as rats, goats, pigs and weeds, the conditions today are much 
as they were in primitive times. 

116 birds 



The climate is blustery, chill) and rainy, although nevei extremely 
(old. rhere are about 25 kinds of higher plains, including Inns, the 
most conspicuous elements being coarse, tall tussock grass and the "dais) 
tree*' (Olearid) which forms an eerie forest. I In large orange blossom- 
clusters belong to a groundsel shrub. 

Seals of several kinds are the onh mammals. The !>iids number a 
little over a score of species. l'hcv include Crested Penguins, albatrosses, 
petrels, gulls, terns and skuas. There arc onl\ two land birds, a tomtit 
peculiar to the Snares, and a fernbird. A nearly flightless grass snipe is, 
however, more of a land than a water bird. 

In December, the southern "June," the sea fowl are nesting, and 
the multitudinous Soot) Shearwaters or "muttonbirds" lill the sky toward 
sunset before dropping each to its own soggy burrow. 

BIRDS OF PARADISE. The first case consists of two exhibits, one of 
the Plume-Birds of Paradise, and one of the South Sea Lories, a group 
of parrots. The second case contains an exhibit of the Rifle Birds (Birds 
of Paradise) and one of various birds of the Malay Archipelago. 

Leonard C. Sanford Hall 

The Sanford Memorial Hall of Biology of Birds is located in The 
Whitney Wing and is devoted mainly to diagrammatic exhibits illus- 
trating the bird's place in nature and many aspects of the structure, 
descent, relationships and behavior of birds and their relation to man. 
The exhibits are in part technical, and they deal with fundamental 
scientific problems. 

They are intended to be instructive rather than picturesque, although 
a large exhibit of tropical marsh birds in flight against a sunset sky 
faces the entrance of the Hall, and a number of other habitat exhibits 
show 7 beautiful and spectacular birds, extinct species, and certain extraor- 
dinary aspects of reproductive behavior. At the left of the Hall is the 
synoptic collection of birds of the w r orld designed to show in systematic 
sequence examples of virtually all of the families of birds and a large 
proportion of the more important genera. 

EXHIBIT EXPLAINING THE PRINCIPLES OF FLIGHT. 



W I N CkAN D FLIG H T FORGES 



HAND WING 



ARM WiNG 




ALULA 







Left, ANDEAN CONDOR. Detail of the high Andes Group. Right, MACAWS. Detail 
of Barro Colorado Island Group, Panama Canal Zone. 



A number of remarkable fossil birds are exhibited in Sanford Hall. 
Among them is the toothed swimming bird, Hesperornis, which lived 
in the age of dinosaurs. There is also a skeleton of a giant moa, from 
Xew Zealand, and the skeleton of a giant, huge-billed bird, Diatryma, 
which lived in western North America some 50,000.000 or more years ago. 

Elsewhere are considered the physiology, flight, feather covering, 
courtship, reproduction, geographical distribution, migration and other 
biological phenomena in exhibits of a chiefly diagrammatic nature. 

BIRDS OF THE WORLD HALL 

This hall is given over to a projected series of twelve habitat groups 
to show the major fauna] areas of the world and their characteristic birds. 
Eleven groups have been completed. The backgrounds, by Francis Lee 
Jaques, Frank McKenzie and Arthur A. [ansson, arc reproductions of 

actual scenes made from color sketches and photographs taken on the 
spot. Beginning at the right of the entrance, the groups are as follows: 

PAMPAS (.ROUP. The pampas and lagoons of the South I Vmperate 
Zone of South America harbor a varied assemblage of birds. These in- 
clude some twenty species of North American sandpipers and plovers 

that migrate to this region to spend the northern winter. Some of the 
birds are permanent residents. The scene is laid at Lake Chascomus. 
near Buenos Aires, Argentina, a region made famous by the writings of 
William Henry Hudson to whom the group is dedicated. 



118 



HIGH ANDES GROUP. The Paramo /one of South America is found 
il sc.i \cw\ at the southern end of the continent but occupies increasingly 
high elevations in the Andes, below the snow line, as the equator is 
ipproached. In the neighborhood <>l Mi. Aconcagua, Chile, shown in the 
background, this /one is reached at 10, 000 Feet elevation, but the birds 
arc still closely related to those of the lowlands ol Patagonia and southern 
Chile. The Andean Condor is ;i characteristic Species. 

AMERICAN TROPICAL ZONE. BaiTO Colorado Island, in the (anal 
/one. was once a hilltop and part of the unbroken humid tropical forest 
of the Panamanian lowlands, but it was cut oil from the surrounding 
forest when the valley of the Chagres River was flooded by the closing of 
the Gatun Dam. It is now preserved as a natural laboratory under the 
care of the Institute for Research in Tropical America. It has been made 
known through the writings of Dr. Frank M. Chapman, particularly by 
his books "My Tropical Air Castle" and "Life in an Air Castle." 
SOUTH GEORGIA GROUP. The bird-life of the Antarctic regions 
is not as rich in species as that of the tropics but possesses certain very 
interesting forms, among which the penguins are outstanding. The 
group shows an assemblage of King Penguins on the island of South 
Georgia. 1,200 miles east of Cape Horn. Among the other characteristic 
species are the Wilson's Petrel (one of the birds known to sailors as 
"Mother Carey's Chickens"), the Kelp Gull, Giant Fulmar, the curious 
Sheathbill, and (painted) the Wandering Albatross. 

EAST AFRICAN PLAINS. The easterly third of Africa is largely a 
grassy country dotted with thorny bushes and trees. The Kidong Valley, 
scene of the group, lies some 40 miles northwest of Nairobi, Kenya Colony, 
in the Great Rift Valley that extends from northern Tanganyika to the 
Red Sea and southern Palestine. The Ostrich, Marabou, Bustard, 
Courser, Secretary Bird, Hoopoe, Coly and Lark shown in the group 
are typical of the plains region, though some of the other birds shown 
have close relatives in the forests. 

CONGO FOREST GROUP. The equatorial forests along the Congo 
River in western Africa are rich in bird-life. As in other tropical forests, 
many species of birds often band together in loosely mixed flocks that 
roam the woods for insects and other food, searching from the ground 
to the tops of the trees. The exhibit shows such an assemblage of ant- 
chasers together with other inhabitants of the region. The scene is at 
Lukolela, about 500 miles upstream from the mouth of the Congo River. 
AUSTRALIA. This is a scene in the Blue Mountains of New South 
Wales, about 100 miles west of Sydney, at the edge of the forest looking 
out over the eucalyptus-dotted savanna. Two Lyre Birds (male and 
female) have come to the forest margin. A flock of Crimson Rosella 
Parrots has settled on the ground and in the trees, and two Eastern 
Rosellas are nearby. Several Black-backed Magpies are on the ground 
or (painted) flying, and a Laughing Jackass is perched in a tree over- 
head. Various characteristic birds of eastern Australia are shown, such 
as the Peaceful Dove, Satin Flycatcher, Broad-billed Roller, Gang-gang 

birds 119 




EASTERN ROSELLAS. 
Detail from the 
Australian bird group. 



Cockatoo and others. In the distance (painted) are scattered the ostrich- 
like groups of emus. 

GOBI GROUP. The extensive desert of central Asia, known as the 
Gobi, contains a number of brackish lakes, without outlets and fed by 
surface and underground streams from mountains such as the Altai Range 
shown in the background. The climate is cold except for a brief 
summer, and the bird-life consists largely of migrant species that go 
south for the winter, as the Demoiselle Crane, Great Bustard and Ruddy 
Sheldrake. The Raven remains throughout the year. The interesting 
Sand-Grouse often travels long distances daily for water and has an 
irregular local migration. 

PALAEARCTIC ALPINE GROUP. The Zermatt Valley and the Mat- 
terhorn, in Switzerland, are shown with some of the birds of the upper 
Alps at timberline at 7,000 feet elevation. Some of the species, like the 
Wall Creeper and the Snowfinch, probably reached the Alps from the 
Himalayas in prehistoric times when these two now distant mountain 
ranges may have been continuous. Others, like the Arctic Ptarmigan and 
Redpoll, may have come from the north, driven by the advancing ice 
of the Glacial Period. Still others are inhabitants of the lower elevations 
that have extended their ranges upward to the timberline. 

NEW FOREST GROUP. The Palaearctic Zone or Old World North- 
ern Temperate Zone corresponds to the Nearctic or North Temperate 
Zone of North America. The families of birds found in the two regions 
are much the same and some of the species are identical although their 



120 



local names m;i\ differ. Occasionally the same name is applied to quite 
different species as in the case of the European and American robins. 
The group shows the famous "Roosevelt Walk" in the New Forest, in 
the Valley of the [tchen, in Hampshire, where Lord (then Sit Edward) 
Gre) and rheodore Roosevelt watched the birds together in 1910. 

rUNDRA GROUP. Churchill, Manitoba, on the western side of 

Hudson Bay, lies in what the Indian called the "land of little sticks." 
litre the Canadian forests to the southward are giving way to the tree- 
less tundra that reaches northward to the Arctic Ocean. In summei the 

tundra is clotted with inumerable insect-filled ponds. Here to nest come 
myriads of migratory water birds — sandpipers, plovers, gulls, ducks 

and geese — that have wintered in warmer lands to the southward. A 
few land birds also nest on the tundra. One of these, the Arctic grouse 
or Ptarmigan, is able to endure the long Arctic winter and, unlike most 
of the tundra birds, does not migrate. A number of forest- or bush- 
dwelling birds reach the northern limit of their distribution near Church- 
ill. Some of these may be seen in the group. 

HALL OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRD GROUPS 

The backgrounds of the Hall of North American Bird Groups are 
reproductions of specific localities, painted from sketches made by the 
artist who usually went with the naturalists when the field studies for 
the groups were made. Practically all sections of the country are shown; 
thus the series shows characteristic North American scenery as well as 
bird-life. 

ORIZABA GROUP. The distribution of birds, in spite of their power 
of flight, is limited in great measure by climate. Thus in traveling from 
Panama north to Greenland there are zones of bird-life corresponding 
to the zones of temperature. This condition is illustrated on the moun- 
tain of Orizaba in Mexico where, in traveling from the tropical jungle 
at its base to its snow-clad peak, the naturalist finds zones of life com- 
parable with those to be found in going north on the continent. 

COBB'S ISLAND GROUP. Among our most beautiful and graceful 
shore-birds are the terns and gulls, wiiich were once ceaselessly hunted 
and killed for their plumage. Thanks to protection, they have now 
greatly increased in numbers. The group represents a section of an 
island off the Virginia coast where the birds are now protected by law. 

DUCK HAWK GROUP. The Duck Hawk may be found nesting on 
the Palisades of the Hudson River almost within the limits of New York 
City. It nests on the ledges of the high cliffs. This hawk is the Peregrine 
Falcon, much used for hunting in the Middle Ages. It often comes into 
the city for pigeons. 

HACKENSACK MEADOW GROUP. In August and September the 
meadows and marshlands bordering the Hackensack River, New Jersey, 
formerly teemed with bird-life. In the group are swallows preparing to 
migrate southward, Bobolinks or "Rice Birds" in autumn plumage, Red- 

birds 121 



winged Blackbirds, Rails, Wood Ducks, and Long-billed Marsh Wrens. 
I iidust i \ and settlement have driven many ol the birds to quieter haunts. 

WILD TURKEY GROUP. The Wild Turkey is a native of America 
;iiul was once abundant in the wooded regions ol the eastern part of the 
United States, it differs slightly in coloi From the Mexican bird, the 
ancestor ol our common barnyard turkey that was introduced from 
Mexico into Europe in l. r )()2 and was brought In the colonists to America. 
The scene is reproduced From studies near Slaty Forks, West Virginia. 

FLORIDA GREAT BITE HERON GROUP. The Great Bine Heron 
usually nests in trees. The bird flies with its neck curved back on its body, 
and because ol this habit it can be easily distinguished From cranes. 
Locale is near St. Lucie, Florida. 

WATER TURKEY OR SXAKE-BIRD" GROUP. In the yellow pond- 
lily swamps near St. Lucie, Florida, grown with c\ presses and cabbage 
palmettos, the shy Water Turkey builds its nest. It gets the name 
"turkey" from its tnrkey-like tail, and the title "snake-bird" from its 
habit of swimming with only the long slender neck and head above 
water. 

SANDHILL CRANE GROUP. Unlike the Herons, the Sandhill Crane 
builds its nest of reeds in the water. It differs also in its manner of 
flight, always fully extending its neck when on the wing. The scene is 
the Kissimmee Prairies of Florida. 

BROWN PELICAN GROUP. Pelican Island, on the Indian River of 
Florida, has been made a reservation by the United States government 
to protect these grotesqne birds. The view shows a section of the island 
at the height of the nesting season. 

AMERICAN EGRET GROUP. This beautiful bird was once almost 
wiped out through the use of its "aigrette plumes" for hats. It is now 
found again throughout much of its former range, owing to effective 
protection. The birds have these plumes only during the nesting season, 
at which time the death of the parent means the starvation of the young. 
This group represents a rookerv in South Carolina. 

TURKEY VULTURE GROUP. The Turkey Vulture or "Buzzard" is 
one of the best-known birds of the South, where it is a valuable scavenger. 
It is protected by law and by sentiment and has become both abundant 
and tame. The scene is on Plummer's Island, above Washington, in the 
Potomac River. 

CALIFORNIA CONDOR GROUP. The California Condor is the 
largest and one of the rarest birds of North America. In the group the 
visitor stands in the interior of the condor's cave, looking down on the 
river of the Pirn Canon, California. 

BRANDT'S CORMORANT GROUP. The foreground of the group 
shows a detail of the island that is painted in the background. The young 
birds are feeding and it may be noted that one fledgling is reaching down 
the mother's throat after the predigested food. 

122 birds 



SAN JOAQUIN VALLEY GROUP. I Ins area was nine an and place 
with a characterise deseri bird fauna, Since ranchers have irrigated thi 
land, aquatic bird-life is plentiful. 1 1 1 is. group is ;i good illustration ol 
the influence ol man on the bird-life oi a region. 

FLAMINGO GROUP, rhere were estimated to be two thousand nests 
in tins colony in the Bahama Islands. The Flamingos make their nests 
l>\ scooping up nnid with their hills and packing it down with hill and 
feet. The nests arc raised to a height of twelve or loin teen inches, pro- 
tecting the eggs and young from high water. Only one egg is laid, and 
the down-covered young is led by the mother on predigested food. 

BOOBY AND MAN-O'-WAR BIRD GROUP. Pan of a coral islet in the 
Bahamas shows three thousand boobies nesting on the ground and loin 
hundred Man-o'-War birds nesting in the sea grape bushes. 

FLORIDA ROOKERY GROUP. This Florida Everglades group shows 
Roseate Spoonbills, Snowy Egrets, American Egrets, Little Blue Herons, 
Louisiana Herons, Ibises, Cormorants and Water Turkeys. Because ol 
the isolation of this island it was one of the last places to be visited by 
the plume-hunter. 

WHISTLING SWAN GROUP. A Whistling Swan on the nest is seen 
far across the arctic tundra, the summer home of this species. The nest 
is of moss, etc., and in it are two to five white eggs, four and a quarter 
inches long. Both male and female share the labor of nest-building, 
incubation, and caring for the young. 



AMERICAN EGRET GROUP, 

in the Hall of 

North American Birds. 




GOLDEN I U.I I GROUP. The (.olden Eagle is one of the most 
widel) distributed ol birds. In North America it is common from the 
Rockies to the Pacific, and as far cast as Maine. Its food consists of 
rabbits, squirrels, woodchucks and occasionally lambs. 

KLAMATH LAKE GROUP. Hie bird-life here shows how normal 
nesting habits may be changed by birds being forced to live in a new 
place. White Pelicans that usually make a nest ol pebbles. Caspian 
Terns that commonly build then nests on sand, and Cormorants that 
nest on rocks are all nesting together here on the islets of the lake. 

ARCTIC-ALPINE BIRD-LIFE GROUP. The scene in this group is 
above the timberline on a crest ol the- Canadian Rockies, 8,000 feet above 
the sea. Although those mountains are in the temperate region, the 

altitude gives climatic conditions that would be found in the far North, 
and the bird-life is arctic in character. White-tailed Ptarmigans. Rosy 
finches and Pipits are nesting here. 

SAGE GROUSE GROUP. The male Sage Grouse is shown, strutting 
and wooing a mate in the sage brush of a western plateau near Medicine 
Bow\ Wyoming. 

PRAIRIE CHICKEN GROUP. The Prairie Chickens are the common 
grouse of the western grasslands. The group shows a typical scene during 
the mating season. The male birds go through most surprising antics 
in their efforts to attract the females. They blow up the orange-colored 
sacs on the sides of their necks, dancing and strutting about, and utter- 
ing a loud, resonant, booming note. 

CANADA GOOSE GROUP. The Canada Goose is one of the first birds 
to migrate north in the spring. It nests among the lakes of Canada even 
before the ice is melted. The Scene is at Crane Lake, Saskatchewan, 
Canada. 

GREBE GROUP. The Grebes are aquatic birds, building their nests 
in the water. During incubation the parent usually covers the eggs 
with grass and reeds when leaving the nest. Nesting at the same lake 
with the Grebes was the Redhead Duck. 

LOON GROUP. The Loon is justly famed for its skill as a diver and 
can swim with great speed under water. Its "laugh" and other calls are 
familiar sounds on the northern New England lakes. Many Loons pass 
the winter at sea fifty miles or more from land. 

BIRD ROCK GROUP. This rocky island thirty miles from shore in 
the Gulf of St. Lawrence gives protection to the sea birds that still nest 
in considerable numbers on its cliffs. Seven species are shown nesting 
in the group — the Razorbilled Auk, Leach's Petrel. Gannet, Puffin, 
Kittiwake Gull, Common Murre and Brunnich's Murre. 



1 24 birds 



MAMMALS 



# 




A mammal is a warm-blooded backboned animal, clothed with fur 
or hair. The young are fed with milk by the mother. Mice, cats, dogs, 
horses, elephants, whales, monkeys and men are mammals. Birds, snakes, 
frogs, turtles and fishes all have backbones but they are not mammals. 
They have neither fur nor hair nor do they nurse their young with milk. 

The Department of Mammals is devoted to their stud) — classifica- 
tion, physical structure, developments, including growth and size, dis- 
tribution, adaptation to environment, abundance and many other 
avenues of research. Field and laboratory investigation results are 
presented in both scientific and popular publications. 

The Department also is responsible for the splendid natural habitat 
groups to be seen in the various halls. Here the visitor will see repre- 
sentative mammals from all parts of the world, together with the kind 
of environment in which they live. There is a multiple purpose in such 
exhibition. The visitor sees the animal at home, he appreciates the 
relationship between the environment and the kind of creature that can 
live in it, and he is brought to realize the necessity of preserving such 
environments if the animals themselves are not to be driven out of 
existence. Thus, both the aims of education and of conservation are 
served. 

THE HALL OF NORTH AMERICAN MAMMALS 

The Hall of North American Mammals is approached from the Hall 
of New York State Mammal exhibits. It was opened to the public on 
April 8, 1942. A few of the groups are still under construction. 

At the west end of the hall, opposite the entrance, is the ALASKA 
BROWN BEAR GROUP. These great carnivores are shown against 
the background of the Pinnacles, steep mountains of the Alaska Peninsula. 

125 




ALASKA BROWN BEAR, the world's largest carnivore. It goes into hibernation on 
the mountain slopes in the fall and emerges in April or May. 



A salmon lies on the shore of a small creek. The Otter that caught the 
salmon is being frightened away by the approach of the bears. 

On either side of the entrance to the hall are small-scale groups, show- 
ing the mammals of North America and their environments during the 
Ice Age. These animals are now extinct here, although their close rela- 
tives exist in other parts of the world. Some of our living mammals 
could have been found in company with extinct ones. The group to the 
right shows the mammals found in Alaska. The group on the left 
depicts those that occurred in southern California. 

The GRANT CARIBOU in their home on the Alaska Peninsula 
appear in the first large group to the right of the entrance. 

126 







WHITE OR DALL SHEEP. These three rams show a group of bachelors during a 
period of the year when the sexes do not mingle. 



Next is the WHITE SHEEP GROUP. Handsome rams are resting 
far above the timber line on a mountain in Alaska, with the golden glow 
of the "midnight sun" striking the white peak of Mount McKinley in 
the background. 

The ROCKY MOUNTAIN SHEEP GROUP shows remarkable dif- 
ferences of color and structure from the White Sheep. The massive, 
closely spiralling horns of the Bighorn contrast with those of the White 
Sheep. In the foreground may be seen a Mantled Ground Squirrel, locally 
called "Big Chipmunk." 

The ALASKA MOOSE GROUP, in the center aisle, displays two 
great bulls locked in a struggle for mastery over a cow, which appears 

MAMMALS 1 27 




THE BIGHORN SHEEP inhabits the rugged mountains far above the tree line and 
descends only when forced down by deep snow. The scene portrayed for this group 
in the American Museum is in Jasper Na'ional Park, Alberta. 



unconcerned over the outcome. A number of Moose painted in the 
background indicate their abundance on the Kenai Peninsula, where the 
scene is laid. A Canada Jay, or Whiskey Jack, perches in a bush to the 
right of the fighters, and a Spruce Grouse is in a tree to the left of 
the cow. 

The GRIZZLY BEAR GROUP, with a male, a mother Bear and her 
two cubs, is around the corner to the right. They are on the edge of 
the Canyon of the Yellowstone River in the National Park. The Falls 
are in the distance, and an Osprey, or Fish Hawk, its nest placed on a 
rocky pinnacle, soars in the middle distance. 

The JAGUAR GROUP is located in Sonora, Mexico. Two Jaguars, 
America's largest spotted cats, crouch on a rocky mountainside at sunset. 

The MOUNTAIN LION GROUP has for its background the pic- 
turesque Grand Canyon of the Colorado River. One Mountain Lion lies 
completely relaxed on the rocky floor of a shallow cave, while the other 
keenly watches the movements of a deer far below. 

Behind the ALASKA BROWN BEAR GROUP is a faunal map of 
North America and photographs of mammals in the wild. 

The WAPITI GROUP is on the opposite side of the hall from the 
MOUNTAIN LION GROUP. A splendid bull Wapiti, or American 
Elk, a cow r , a yearling bull and a calf of the vear are shown in the 
northern Colorado Rockies. 

The VIRGINIA DEER, or Whitetail, still occurs in numbers in the 
New York Metropolitan area, as this scene in Bear Mountain Park testi- 

128 




w^ 



m 






n 



WAPITI. This animal is generally known in America as the Elk. It 
resembles the European Red Deer. 



in some ways 



fies. A buck, a doe, and a young of the year stand amid the brilliantly 
colored foliage of the eastern fall. 

The MULE DEER GROUP is portrayed with the Devil's Tower, 
northeastern Wyoming, in the background. 

BISON AND PRONGHORN ANTELOPE on the North Platte 
River, Wyoming, occupy the large case opposite the MOOSE GROUP. 
Vast herds of Bison formerly spread from the Appalachians to the 
Rockies and from Mexico to the Canadian Northwest. The Pronghorn, 
which is not an antelope and has no close relatives, is the only hollow- 
horned ruminant that sheds the horns annually. 

A Prairie Dog is poking its head out of a burrow, and Cowbirds are 
associated with the Bison. 

The MUSK OX GROUP, around the corner, demonstrates that the 
Musk Ox is well equipped for life in the rigorous Arctic regions. In its 
long, dense coat of fur and hair, it is quite at home in the blizzards of 
northern Ellesmere Land. 

The ROCKY MOUNTAIN GOAT GROUP exhibits a billy, a nanny 
and a kid on a mountain in southern Alaska, overlooking a beautiful 
fiord, the Endicott Arm. 

The OSBORN CARIBOU GROUP is placed against a background 
of mountain grasslands in northern British Columbia. Though these 
Caribou often move down into the forest during winter storms, they do 
not migrate like the Arctic Caribou of the tundras of the far north. A 
covey of Ptarmigan may be seen in the background. 



MAMMALS 



129 




THE MUSK OX is now restricted to 
certain parts of Arctic America, 
though in the Ice Age it ranged over 
most of Europe, Asia, and what is 
now the United States. 



Behind the two largest groups, the Moose and the Bison, are the 
north and south galleries, containing smaller habitat groups. 

North Gallery, beginning to the right of the entrance (not open 
as the General Guide goes to press): 

GRAY FOX AND OPOSSUM in the Great Smoky Mountain! 

National Park 
FISHER AND PORCUPINE near Mt. Washington 
RACCOON in Okefinokee Swamp, Georgia 
BEAVER in Gladwin Reservation, central Michigan 
MOUNTAIN BEAVER in Mt. Ranier National Park 
LYNX AND SNOWSHOE RABBIT, Mt. Albert, Gaspe, Quebec 
CALIFORNIA GRAY SQUIRREL in Oregon 

South Gallery, beginning to the left of the entrance: 

ANTELOPE JACK AND BLACK-TAILED JACK RABBIT in 

cactus country of southern Arizona 
BLACK BEAR in cypress swamp in Florida 
COTTONTAIL RABBIT in corn field near Ithaca, N. Y. 
TIMBER WOLF at night in forest of northern Minnesota 
SPOTTED SKUNK AND CACOMISTLE at Shiprock, northern 

Arizona 
COYOTE in Yoscmite Valley, California 
SKUNK at dusk near Delaware Watergap, N. J. 



130 MAMMALS 





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THE REAR GUARD. Detail from the great elephant group in the Akeley African Hall. 
In every herd of elephants, in the wild condition at least, one animal takes the 
responsibility of wheeling about at frequent intervals to see that all is well behind. 
The young male shown above is mounted in this position in the elephant herd. It 
was collected by John T. McCutcheon in 1910 when he was in the field with Carl 
Akeley. 



AKELEY MEMORIAL HALL OF AFRICAN MAMMALS 

The main floor of this hall, entered from the Theodore Roosevelt 
Memorial Building, was opened to the public in the Spring of 1936. Here 
are exhibited mammals typical of Africa, in their natural surroundings. 

At each side of the door are sculptured representations of African 
natives by Malvina Hoffman. At the opposite end are a very large pair 
of elephant tusks. 



132 



MAMMALS 



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GIRAFFES AND GAZELLES AT A WATER HOLE. 



1 



In tlic center, dominating the hall, stands a herd of AFRICAN 
ELEPHANTS in characteristic formation when alarmed. The great 
bull's trunk is raised to test the air lor scent, while a younger bull wheels 
about to cover the rear of the herd from possible attack. 

Immediately to the right of the entrance is t he WATER HOLE 
GROUP. The animals ol the plains must come, during the dry season, 
to such seepage holes to chink. Drawn together b\ their common thirst 
.iic- Reticulated Giraffes, Gram Gazelles, Oryxes with long straight horns, 

and (,rc\\ Zebras. Other typical mammals ol Kenya are seen in the 
bat kground. 

Next are the MOUNTAIN NYALA, handsome antelopes, on the 
heather-covered uplands of Abyssinia. 

A herd ol AFRICAN BUFFALO emerges from the marshes along the 
Tana River, Kenya, in late afternoon. 

A FAMILY GROUP OF LIONS rests in the shade of a tree, their 
tawny hides dappled with sunshine. In the background a herd of ante- 
lopes and zebras feeds unconcernedly. 
, The BONGO GROUP show a pair of these boldly striped antelopes 

in their native bamboo forest high on the Aberdare Mountains, Kenya. 
They have disturbed another typical forest-dweller, the Giant Foresl 
Hog. 

The GIANT ELAND, in the southern Sudan, is the largest of the 
antelopes. 

The UPPER NILE REGION GROUP. Waterbuck, Kob. Nile 
Lechwe, Tiang Antelope, Situanga, Roan Antelope and Hippopotamus 
are found together in this exhibit. A tributary of the Nile, showing 
sunning crocodiles, forms the background. 

At the end of a short hallway, there is a large-scale map of Africa. 
showing localities from which the various animals and their settings were 
taken. 

To the left of the Upper Nile Region Group is the PLAINS GROUP. 
Here is the teeming mammalian life of the East African plains. The 
several kinds of antelope and zebra in this group are typical of this part 
of Africa. 

The GREATER KOODOO, the most prized of the twisted-horn 
antelopes, bears the longest horns of any. An old male, a female and a 
young male stand in a setting duplicating the rough, scrub-covered hills 
where these animals were collected. 

The GIANT SABLE is noted for its elegant form, deep rich color and 
long saber-like horns. It is found in a limited area of the dry, park-like 
country of central Angola and is rapidly becoming extinct. 

The GEMSBOK is a larger relative of the Oryx seen in the Water 
Hole Group. Although once widely distributed in South Africa, the 
Gemsbok is now common only in dry parts of the Kalahari Desert. 

The OKAPI is forest-dwelling and is the only living relative of the 
Giraffe. 

The LIBYAN DESERT shelters such animals as the Addax. with 

1 34 MAMMALS 




GREVY ZEBRAS FROM WATER HOLE GROUP IN AKELEY AFRICAN HALL. 
AFRICAN BUFFALO. Detail of the group in Akeley African Hall. 




r 




THE BONGO is noted for its shyness. Very few white hunters have ever seen a 
wild one. 



GREATER 
KOODOO 
GROUP. 





MOUNTAIN GORILLA. Of all living animals, the gorilla appears to be most nearly 
like man. The adult males may reach a weight of 500 pounds. Their strength is 
tremendous and they are dangerous when enraged. They are found in the rain 
forests in the highlands of the eastern Belgian Congo. Terrestrial in habit, they 
feed on fruits and herbage. Details of group in Akeley African Hall. 



their spirally twisted horns, the White Oryx, with the scimiter-shaped 
horns, and the Addra Gazelles. 

The GORILLA family is of particular significance because these 
great apes are among the most man-like of all the living animals. They 
are shown here in a clearing in the dense rain forest of the Kivu 
Mountains, an exact replica of their natural habitat. 

Gallery of Akeley African Hall 

The first group on the right shows the KLIPSPRINGER, the small, 
rock-climbing antelope in the background. East African Baboons are in 
the right foreground and a pair of Mountain Reedbuck appears on the 
left. Among the rocks in the left foreground is a Hyrax or Cony. 

A pair of CHEETAH, fast-running cats, closely watches two Nyalas 
which have just come out of the forest. This setting is in the country 
near the lower Zambesi River in Mozambique. 

A party of CHIMPANZEES is in their tree habitat overlooking the 



MAMMALS 



137 




GERENUK of East Africa is said not 
to drink even in the well-watered 
Tanganyika country. 



Cavally River, which forms the boundary between the Ivory Coast and 
Liberia. The animal at the right is in the process of building a nest. 

LESSER KOODOO, the males of which have twisted horns, are in 
company with two Gerenuks — strange, long-limbed, long-necked ante- 
lopes with small heads. A flock of Vulturine Guinea Fowl is seen in 
the background. 

A scene from the dense rain forest of the Cameroons shows a group 
of MANDRILLS looking for food. The females of these baboons are 
appreciably smaller than the males. 

IMP ALA prefer the park-like country in which they are shown. With 
their lithe bodies and lyre-shaped horns, the males rank among the most 
beautiful of the antelopes. 

The WHITE OR SQUARE-MOUTHED RHINOCEROS is mis- 
called "white" from its habit of wallowing in mud that dries lighter in 
color. The "square" mouth is an anatomical character. In front of this 
family group is an African Porcupine. 

On the other side of the passage, at the end of which is a large map 
of Africa, a BLACK RHINOCEROS family enjoys a mud wallow. 

A HUNTING DOG pack at evening looks across the plains to where 
herds of Wildebeests and Zebras can be dimlv seen. The doirs rarelv 



138 



MAMMALS 




COLOBUS MONKEY. Its long, hand- 
some black-and-white coat suggests 
a bishop's robe. Actually, it blends 
with the hanging, light-colored lichens 
and dark shadows of its forest hab- 
itat. 






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THE LEOPARD GROUP IN THE SOUTH ASIATIC HALL. 



SAMBAR ATTACKED BY WILD DOGS. 







attack these larger species. Gazelles, Impala, and smaller animals arc 
their usual pre) . 

I lie HYENA-JACKAL-VULTURE GROUP. Oul on the Serengeti 
Plains, Tanganyika, a pair of lions have killed a zebra. As they with- 
draw alter completing their least, the scavengers arrive i<n theii share 
of the spoils. The animals and birds included in this group are a Spotted 
Hyena, two Black-backed Jackals, White-hacked Griffon Vultures, ;i 
Ruppell's Griffon Vulture, two Eared Vultures, a Hood Vulture, a 
Marabou Stork and a White-collared Raven. 

LEOPARDS about to spring upon an unsuspecting BUSH PIG is 
the subject of the next group. The scene is on the edge of a small swamp 
in the Aberdare Mountains, Kenya. 

The COLOBUS MOXKEY GROUP shows a troop of these showy 
black and white monkeys among the branches of a tree overlooking a 
section of the Aberdare Mountain Forest, Kenya. 

The SOUTH AFRICAN GROUP depicts typical mammals of the 
high veldt as they were when white men first came there. Springbok are 
now greatly reduced in number and Blesbok and Black Wildebeest 
have survived only on a few farms where they are protected. 

The OSTRICH GROUP includes a pair of these large birds with 
young ones just hatched from the eggs. The Wart Hogs would relish 
the young ostriches but the parents stand guard belligerently. 

VERNAY-FAUNTHORPE HALL OF SOUTH ASIATIC MAMMALS 

This hall is entered from the left or southern end of the Roosevelt 
Memorial Hall. 

From 1922 to 1928, Mr. Arthur S. Vernay of Great Britain made six 
expeditions to India, Burma and Siam to collect and give to the Museum 
this collection. It is considered the finest and most complete exhibit 
of the larger South Asiatic Mammals in existence. 

Two fine examples of the INDIAN ELEPHANT stand in the center 
of the hall, giving due prominence to the largest and perhaps most 
characteristic mammal of southern Asia. This species differs from the 
African Elephant in its smaller ears, higher forehead, and arched back. 
It also has different teeth and trunk with only one "finger." 

The INDIAN LEOPARD differs only slightly from those found in 
Africa. Both are forest animals but occur in the dry bush country also. 
They feed on deer, pig, and larger birds such as the peafowl, an example 
of which has been captured by the Leopard in this group. 

The SAMBAR is the largest of the Indian deer, found throughout 
the wooded part of southern Asia. Its size makes it an important source 
of food for the larger meat-eaters, but it is powerful and may be dangerous 
when brought to bay. The Red Wild Dog or Dhole of India hunts 
in packs, sometimes as many as forty strong. These packs are able to kill 
animals as large as the Sambar. 

The BLACK BUCK is found in the high plains country. The adult 
male alone is blackish, the females and even young males are yellowish- 

MAMMALS 141 




THE GAUR. The Gaur is an imposing animal of India, Burma and the Malay Penin 
sula. It is found in the forests, but sometimes feeds in grassy areas on the high 
hills. It is not found in the lowlands. 






ASIATIC WATER BUFFALO. These buffaloes are the cattle of the grassy plains of 
India. They are widely domesticated as draft animals and furnish milk to the 
natives. 







THE BANTING closely resembles the Jersey cow in both its rich brown color and 
its physical appearance. However, the male Banting's coloration blackens with age. 



brown. The Chinkara or Indian gazelle also is found in this country. 

The MUNTJAC, also called Barking Deer, is one of the most primi- 
tive of the true deer. Males have well-developed canine teeth. The 
antlers are supported on bony structures called pedicels. The Mouse 
"Deer" or Chevrotain is not a true deer, but is more closely related to 
the Camels. 

The LION formerly had an extended range, chiefly in the plains 
country of northern India. It is usually pale in color but does not differ 
greatly from the several races found in Africa. 

The FOUR-HORNED ANTELOPE is the only living wild four- 
horned mammal. It is found in small groups in most wooded and hilly 
parts of India but not in dense jungle. The Smooth Otter is found 
south of the Himalaya Mountains in India, Burma and the Malay 
Peninsula. 

The CHITAL or AXIS DEER is one of the most attractive of the 
deer family. The young of most deer are spotted. This species retains 
the spotted pattern throughout life. It frequents the bamboo jungle and 
wooded regions near water and is found in suitable habitats throughout 
most of India and Ceylon. 

The GAUR is perhaps the largest of the existing cow-like animals. 
Large bulls stand over six feet at the shoulder. The Gaur is found in 
forested hilly country from India to Indo-China and the Malay Peninsula. 

The WATER BUFFALO occurs in the lowlands and swamps of 
central India, Ceylon and the Malay Peninsula. Buffaloes have been 
domesticated and used as beasts of burden and milch animals. The wild 
buffalo is the most dangerous Asiatic bovine to hunt, for it frequently 
charges without provocation. A herd will attack a tiger without hesita- 
tion. 

The great one-horned INDIAN RHINOCEROS is characterized by 
thickened skin which has the appearance of plate armor. Its prehensile, 
or grasping, upper lip shows that it feeds partly at least on leaves and 
twigs, although it is found chiefly in the grass-jungles of Assam. 

MAMMALS 1 43 



The BAN I ENG is possibl) the most like the domestic cow in appear- 
ance of :ill the wild bovines, and may be ancestral to the Indian cattle. 
It is, however, closel) related to the Gaur. It is found in flat country at 
lower altitudes. The Banting occurs'from Burma and Cochin China to 
Bali in the Malay Archipelago. 

The ELD DEER or I HAMIX is distinguished from other species 
b) the graceful curve of the antlers in the male. It is found on the river 
plains and in suitable locations east of the Bay of Bengal, from Assam 
and Manipur to Cambodia, Hainan, and the Malay Peninsula. 

The MM A I RAN RHINOCEROS is related to the Indian species 
but has two horns and is much smaller. It is found in Assam, Burma, 
Sunn, the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra and Borneo. It is rare and secretive 
and is found exclusively in forests. 

The SLOTH BEAR is characterized by the long flexible muzzle 
which is used to root termites from their deep runways. These bears feed 
almost entirely on insects, fruits and honey. They climb trees with 
difficulty. Sloth Bears are usually timid, but if wounded or cornered, 
they may be dangerous. 

The HOG DEER or PARA is a small relative of the Sambar and is 
found in the Indo-Gangetic Plain, the flat country in Burma, and much 
of Indo-China. It is usually solitary in habit. 

The INDIAN WILD BOAR is closely allied to the Eurasian Boar 
but has a higher crest. It is one of the most savage of Indian mammals, 
fighting until killed. 

GIBBONS are the least human of the man-like apes and the most 
disposed to live in trees. They are capable of walking upright but prefer 




THE GIANT PANDA. This interesting crea- 
ture lives in the bamboo forests growing 
on the sides of the mountains of western 
China. Though it resembles a bear in out- 
ward appearance, anatomical studies show 
that it is more closely allied to the raccoon. 



SIBERIAN TIGER. From a group in the North 
Asiatic Hail. 




to travel by swinging from branch to branch and from tree to tree. The 
Hoolock Gibbon inhabits the hills of Assam, Burma, and southern 
Yunnan. Males are generally black with white brows. Females are often 
pale yellowish-gray. 

The SWAMP DEER or BARASIXGHA is related to the Thamin, 
but differs in the shape of the antlers. It is a large species, preferring to 
live in the neighborhood of water in open forests and on grassy plains. 
This group also includes a family of Sambar. 

The TIGER is the largest Asiatic cat. Tigers live in the forests and 
tall grass country, the stripes blending closely with the light and shadow 
of this habitat. They feed largely on deer and pigs but frequently kill 
domestic cattle. Individuals too old or decrepit to catch their usual 
prey may become man-eaters. 

NORTH ASIATIC MAMMALS 

These may be seen in the circular hall at the end of the South Asiatic 
Mammal Hall, or through the adjoining Special Exhibition Hall. 
Eventually, the exhibits will cover the region north of the Himalayas, 
including Tibet, Afghanistan, Mongolia and Siberia. 

Two groups are now completed - THE GIANT PANDA GROUP 
and the SIBERIAN TIGER GROUP. Material for the third, or SAIGA 
ANTELOPE, incomplete, is laid out in one of the cases. 

Until such time as other groups are planned and completed, the 
remainder of the hall is given over to the Corner Gallery, where tem- 
porary exhibits of current interest are displayed. 



MAMMALS 



145 



THE HALL OF OCEAN LIFE 

Leading from the Hall <>l Fishes is the Hall ol Ocean Life. In it are 
displayed whales, porpoises, marine mammals, the great CORAL REEF 

( . l\( )l fP and 111:11 inc invertebrates. 

"Oscar," the whale embryo, is shown in the vestibule ol the hall, 
opposite the shell ol a great clam. 

Immediately upon entering the- hall, the visitor will note the large 
skeletons and models ol whales and porpoises suspended from the ceiling. 
In the corner, at the left of the entrance, is a model of the WHITE 
WHALE, a large northern porpoise, fust in front ol the entrance to 
the hall is the striking full-size model ol the KILLER WHALE, with 
contrasting black and white markings. I he Killer Whale is a fierce 
hunting animal, capable ol swallowing a fur seal or small porpoise at 
a gulp. Near the Killer and facing it hangs the model of a BLACKFISH, 
which, like the Killer, is a species ol giant porpoise, although milder in 
disposition. Skeletons ol these animals are below the- models. 

Above the balcony in front of the entrance is suspended a Life-like 
model of a GIANT SQUID, a great backboneless sea animal upon which 
the Sperm Whale preys. The large skeleton to the right is that ol a 
SPERM WHALE, the largest of the living toothed whales. The Sperm 
Whale was formerly most sought by whalers as the source ol spermaceti, 
a white, brittle, fatty substance found in the sperm-oil in the head of the 
whale. It was used in making candles and in salves and ointments. 
Beyond the Sperm Whale, on the same side, hangs a skeleton of the 
FINBACK WHALE. 

Just above these two large skeletons are found skeletons of the 
XARWAHL and species of toothed whales, including several rare types. 
At the near end of this row is a Sperm Whale model, and at the far end 
a small model of the SULPHUR-BOTTOM WHALE, the largest animal 
in the world. 

Along the left side of the hall, three skeletons of whales are hung. 
The one nearest the entrance is a RIGHT WHALE, the middle one a 



SKELETON OF THE ATLANTIC RIGHT WHALE. The "whalebone" is shown in the 
skeleton suspended from the roof of the mouth as close-set, horny plates. 








HARPOONING THE SPERM WHALE DURING THE DAYS OF SAILING SHIPS. One of a 
series of murals in the Hall of Ocean Life depicting whaling in olden times when 
sailing vessels were used and the whales were captured with a harpoon thrown 
by hand. 



PYGMY RIGHT WHALE, and the third a CALIFORNIA GRAY 
WHALE. Above them is a long row of life-like models of whales and 
porpoises, ranging in species from the Right Whale and the Common 
Dolphin to the rare River and Lake Dolphins. 

About the center of the row is a model of the PYGMY SPERM 
WHALE. At the far end are two large models, one of the spectacular 
NARWHAL with long ivory tusk (at the right), the other the FALSE 
KILLER, formerly a very rare species, but in recent years appearing un- 
expectedly off the British Isles and the coast of South Africa, where a 
large number were stranded in shallow water. 

Around the walls of the balcony are eleven murals. Along the right 
side are four great paintings showing scenes typical of AMERICAN 
SPERM WHALING and titled respectively "The Chase," "The Attack," 
"Towing the Carcass," and "Trying Out." On the left wall are three 
canvases portraying the life of TYPICAL SPECIES OF WHALES, in- 
cluding "Bowhead Whale," "Finback Whale," and "Killer Whales Attack- 
ing a Gray Whale." These seven murals are the work of Mr. John P. 
Benson, the noted marine painter. 

The walls to the right and left of the entrance bear murals by J. M. 
Guerry: left, the Sulphur-bottom Whale; right, Sperm Whale with its 
favorite food, the Giant Squid. 

Below the level of the balcony and hanging just beyond reach from 
the rail at the head of the stairway is a cast of a YOUNG SPERM 
WHALE which came into New York Harbor and was eventually made 
captive in the Gowanus Canal in Brooklyn. It was brought entire to 
the Museum. 

On the main floor of the Hall of Ocean Life and under the balcony 
are the habitat groups of marine mammals. Beginning at the near right 

MAMMALS 1 47 




A BULL WALRUS FROM THE PACIFIC WALRUS GROUP IN THE HALL OF OCEAN LIFE. 
One of the specimens secured by the Stoll-McCracken Expedition to Bering Sea. 
Group presented by Mrs. Andrew Carnegie. 



A FAMILY OF FUR SEALS. Details from a group in the Hall of Ocean Life. 




A toy-size antelope, Swayne's dik-dik is a 
close relative of the Giant Eland which 
weighs 1200 pounds: one of the many inter- 
esting exhibits in the Synoptic Hall. 




corner, the first of these is the group of NORTHERN ELEPHANT 
SEALS, huge, ponderous animals that have hauled themselves out on 
the rocky beach of Guadaloupe Island, Lower California. The full- 
grown male of this species has a long, hanging proboscis suggestive of 
an elephant's trunk. Next is the exhibit of the FLORIDA MANATEE, 
a thick-set beast, well-adapted to its life in the water. 

The PACIFIC WALRUS, one of the largest groups in the Museum, 
shows these Arctic sea mammals at home on an ice floe in the Bering Sea. 

In the first left corner is a large group of STELLER SEA LIONS 
on St. George Island, one of the Pribilofs. The male Sea Lions are 
huge, powerful seals with massive necks and shoulders. 

Many details of the home life of the beautiful ALASKA FUR SEALS, 
on Kitovi Rookery, St. Paul's Island, may be noted. Each vigorous, 
dominant bull has his harem of sleek, slender cows, while nearby are the 
bachelor bulls and the playful pups. 

On the floor of the hall are several cases with special exhibits. One 
of these is the TOWNSEND FUR SEAL, a species almost extinct and 
only recently rediscovered after it was believed by many to have dis- 
appeared completely. Another case displays several types of diving gear 
with full equipment of pump, telephone, etc. 

SYNOPTIC HALL OF MAMMALS 

This hall, entered from the Insect Hall, chiefly illustrates various 
interesting differences in the habits and structures of mammals. It also 
shows their principal orders and the main subdivisions of these, known 
as families. Each family is, as far as possible, represented by a mounted 
specimen and a skeleton. 

Starting from the farther or western end and walking around the 
room from left to right, one passes from the egg-laying Platypus to 

mammals 1 49 



Man, k presented b\ the figure of an Australian native, armed with a 
boomerang. 

Certain exhibits demonstrate modifications ol Form and structure for 
various ways ol locomotion, and the superiority of the brain of mammals 
Over that of Other backboned animals. Others show albinism (white 
varieties) and melanism (black varieties). Still others point out that 
animals outwardly similar may be <>nl\ ver) distantly related. How the 
coal of the hare changes from brown to white and how plants and 
animals adapt to a desert habitat are also illustrated. 

Ol special note is the SKELETON OF [UMBO, the largest elephant 
ever brought to this country alive. 

The FRUIT HALS, often known as FLYING FOXES, the largest 
member of the bat family, and found only in the warmer parts of the 
Old World, are represented by a small portion of a eolony from Calapan, 
Philippine Islands. Such a colonv may be very destructive to bananas 
and other fruits. 

The most striking object in the hall is the suspended life-size model 
of a SULPHUR-BOTTOM WHALE, seventy-six feet long. The original 
of this specimen was captured in Newfoundland and the model is 
accurately reproduced from careful measurements. This species of whale 
is not only the largest of living animals, but, as far as we know, the 
largest animal that has ever lived. A specimen of this size would weigh 
from sixty to seventy tons, twice as much as the extinct reptile BROX- 
TOSAURUS. Although whales and porpoises live in the water, they are 
not fishes but true mammals, since they are warm-blooded, breathe by 
means of lungs, not gills, and nurse their young with milk. 

MAMMALS OF NEW YORK STATE 

A complete series of the living mammals which have been known to 
exist within the limits of New York State is presented in the corridor 
on the first floor of the Roosevelt Memorial in the neighborhood of the 
elevators. This exhibit includes skins and skulls of all mammals of 
moderate size, models of the larger species, and cutout figures of the 
whales and other large sea-animals recorded from the water around 
New York. 






1 50 MAMMALS 



ANIMAL BEHAVIOR 



Most visitors arc unaware that the Museum also houses a large 
laboratory devoted entirely to the study of LIVING animals. This is Lhe 
Department of Animal Behavior which is located on the sixth and 
seventh floors of the African Wing. Although this area of the Museum 
is not open to the general public, special science groups are taken 
through the laboratory when advance arrangements are made. In this 
way hundreds of advanced students from New York City High Schools 
as well as college classes have visited the laboratory in recent years and 
for many, this was their first opportunity to see a research laboratory in 
operation. The staff of the Department is also available for consultation 
when important problems concerning animal behavior arise. 

About two decades ago, Museum authorities in their deliberations 
concerning Museum policy decided that while a major function of this 
institution continues to be the census, classification and structure- of 
animals, attention should also be paid to the relationship of the various 
animals to each other and to their surroundings. Museum scientists 
should investigate and exhibit not only what animals do, but also how 
and why they behave as they do. Thus the Department of Animal 
Behavior was established so that specialists in the psychology and physi- 
ology of animals could study these aspects of natural history, and could 
be available for consultation particularly in the planning of new exhibits. 

Much can be learned by the scientist when he observes how animals 
behave in their natural surroundings. However, this approach to animal 
study has very definite limitations. It is generally difficult in a field study 

151 



% 




AFRICAN MOUTHBREEDING FISH SPAWNING IN LABORATORY AQUARIUM. The 
female is laying eggs in the "nest," as the male stands by ready to fertilize them. 
Within a minute after the last egg is laid and fertilized, the male will pick up 
these eggs and carry them in his mouth until they develop into young fry. 



A CIRCULAR COLUMN OF WORKER ARMY ANTS IN A LABORATORY NEST. Under 
natural conditions, these ants carry out their daily pillaging raids on complex 
systems of branching chemical trails. Excited by the presence of active larvae, the 
workers in the laboratory enclosure also move incessantly, but now in a circle. 
Once such an endless column is formed, the workers may run in it more or less 
continuously for several days, until all are dead from dryness. 



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A SIMPLE TEST OF PARENTAL BEHAVIOR IN THE RING DOVE. For a considerable 
part of the incubation and nesting period in this bird, the nest locality and the 
nest itself are attractive to the parents, whereas eggs or young alone are not. In 
this test the parent bird, removed from the nest, was presented with the young 
on one side and the nest on the other. Brushing past the young without pause, 
the adult returned directly to the nest and proceeded to sit in it. 



to rearrange the surroundings so that a given aspect of behavior can 
be studied reliably. Laboratory study offers an opportunity to follow up, 
to supplement or to correct ideas developed in the field. Also many 
important problems must be brought into the laboratory if they are to 
be studied at all. For example, some species of fish live in water so 
muddy that they can be seen only when the seine brings them to the 
surface. They can be collected in the field, but their way of life remains 
hidden except to laboratory study. For reasons such as these, the Depart- 
ment of Animal Behavior has a laboratory designed to keep animals 
alive and in good health, so that their behavior can be observed and 
analyzed under suitable conditions. A large greenhouse situated on the 



ANIMAL BEHAVIOR 



153 



rool h;is aquaria for warm watei fishes and facilities Eor other tropical 
animals. There arc High I cages and nest quarters for birds. There are 
rooms with controlled lighting so that animals can DC placed in reversed 
daylight cycles and thus nocturnal species can be studied during the 
daytime. There are special air-conditioned and heat-controlled rooms 
and other means of regulating laboratory surroundings to meet the 
conditions needed for each type of animal and problem. 

The Departmental program is focused upon the important problem 
<>l behavior development in the individual and species and upon those 
types of behavior commonly referred to as "instinctive." Physiological 
mechanisms involving brain, nerves, glands, and hormones are studied 
along with social factors, previous experience and finally the general 
influence of an animal's surroundings upon its behavior pattern. All of 
these affect the animal's behavior to some extent, and the qtiestion is 
"how." Somewhat as the evolution of animals is reflected in changes 
from simple to more complex structures, we find among animals an 
evolution of behavior from the forced movements characteristic of one- 
celled forms to the elaborate behavior patterns characteristic of mammals 
and man. For a proper understanding of the evolution of behavior it 
is necessary to study a variety of behavior patterns in very different 
animals. Thus as the Departmental program progresses, living quarters 
are provided for many types of animals under study, usually including 
insects, fish, amphibia, birds and various species of mammals. 



154 ANIMAL BEHAVIOR 



ANTHROPOLOGY 




MAN AND HIS ORIGINS 

Anthropology is both a natural and a social science dealing with the 
complex subject of man as a physical being and also with man's culture — 
what he does and thinks. 

That branch of the science concerned with man as an organism is 
known in this country as physical anthropology. This includes the 
evolution of man, the classification of the varieties and races of man as 
he exists today and has in the past, and various aspects of human biology. 

Anthropology, as a social science, has been concerned chiefly with 
the development and meaning of culture. There are two principal 
branches: archaeology and ethnology. 

The archaeologist works with the tools, buildings, and other objects 
left by ancient peoples and attempts to reconstruct the history of human 
culture from the time of its origin through the many thousands of years 
preceding the periods for which we have written records. 

The ethnologist studies and compares the varieties of customs and 
beliefs of the existing peoples of the world. Both are primarily inter- 
ested in understanding the nature of human culture — that which can 
be defined as the body of knowledge, beliefs, customs or ways of doing 
things which are passed along from generation to generation by the 
informal or formal processes of education. 

Only by knowing the varied forms that the cultures of man have 
attained and something of their changes throughout time can we fully 
understand the unique creature which is man. 

HALL OF PRIMATES 

The Systemic Series of Primates, intended to give some idea of the 
types of animals included in this order, and their range in size, form, and 
color, begins on the left with examples of gorillas and chimpanzees and is 

155 







SKELETON FROM FISH TO 



- 'leton of ma i 
animal> 
macH 

active par! Compara r . 
tons of all known typos 
animals Has made it p< 
record of progress from 

■ 
line of descent fro i 
sno* 











_ 



THE FIRST FOUR STAGES FROM FISH TO MAN. (From water-living to land-living) 



Stage 1 

Primitive Ganoid Fish 

Cheirolepis 



Stage 2 

Lobe-Finned Fish 
(Eusthenopteron) 



Stage 3 

Generalized Amphibian 

(Diplovertebron) 



Stage 4 
Primitive Repl 
(Seymouria) 



continued in the wall cases around the room, ending with the lemurs. 
Noteworthy among the primates is the gorilla, largest and most powerful 
of apes; the curious "proboscis" monkey from Borneo; and the aye-aye 
of Madagascar. 

The center corridor contains groups of primates characteristic of 
various parts of the world — Africa, Asia. South America and Madagascar, 
and a group of human pygmies living in the forest of central Africa. 

Outside of the central corridor, on the left side of the hall, is a group 
<>l orangutans from Borneo. 

At the farther end of the hall, a series of skeletons demonstrates the 
comparative structure of the primates and the changes that take place 
in passing from lemurs to man. 



156 









d&[ 




I 



THE SECOND FOUR STAGES FROM FISH TO MAN. (From ground-dwelling to tree-dwelling) 



ge 5 

lodont Reptile or 

-Mammal (Cynognathus) 



Stage 6 

Archaic Mammal 

Oppossum 



Stage 7 

Very Ancient Primate 

(Notharctus) 



Stage 8 

Primitive Anthropoid 

Gibbon 



HALL OF THE NATURAL HISTORY OF MAN 

The Hall of the Natural History of Man consists of two parts — 
Introduction to Human and Comparative Anatomy, and the second 
part dealing with the physical characteristics of the Races of Man, 
Development, Growth, and related topics. 

The first part begins by showing MAX IN HIS COSMIC ASPECT, 
with man conceived as a living engine which derives its working capital 
of energy directly or indirectly from the energy of the sun stored up in 
plant and animal tissue. This energy is appropriated by man in food 
substances and distributed through the various anatomical systems. 

In another exhibit the ELEMENTS OF THE LOCOMOTOR 
APPARATUS in backboned animals are set forth. It is shown how red 



ANTHROPOLOGY 



157 







THE TWO FINAL STAGES FROM FISH TO MAN. (On the ground again, and attainment 
erect posture) 



Stage 9 

Anthropoid Ape (Chimpanzee, above; Gorilla, below) 



Stage 10 
Man 



muscle fibers of the fish are combined into \ V-shaped muscle segments or 
myomeres and how the muscles of man are constructed. 

Other exhibits deal with fhe anatomy of man as compared with lower 
backboned animals, following the chief organ systems of the body and 
the parts concerned with locomotion. 

The POSITION OF MAN AMONG THE VERTEBRATES and the 
evidences of his evolution from lower backboned types are shown In 
comparisons of skeletal structure in living and in fossil types, and by 
comparisons of his muscle system with lower forms, as well as by com- 
parative embryology. An analysis of the nervous system, and tin- evolution 
of the human brain arc dealt with, and the functions ol the brain are 
demonstrated. 

158 






rhe second pari of the exhibit, on the righi side <>l this hall, is 
devoted to EXHIBITS ILLUSTRATING HUMAN BIOLOGY. Shown 
are exhibits of the growth and development <>l ;• human embryo, skeletal 
growth in the head, and the variety of physical types oi man as modified 
by glandular secretions. \ scries oi full-size figures showing some oi the 
major racial types of man has been placed in the central alcove. 

Two (harts are also displayed in this alcove. One illustrates the 
natural habitats of the various racial t\|>es exhibited. The Other depicts 
the major population movements throughout the world since 1492. 

At the far end of this side of the hall will he found an exhibit on some 
of the more important endocrine functions. 

The Skeleton from Fish to Man 

The judgment of science is that our pre-human ancestors only reached 
the grade of humanity after many millions of years of evolution from 
lower to higher grades of life. 

Owing to the enormous number and variety of organisms in nearly all 
geologic ages, and to the wholesale destruction of their skeletons by 
natural agencies, only a small number of the fossil forms which we have 
discovered to date happen to lie in or near the direct line of ascent 
from fish to man. Nevertheless, the story of the evolution of the skeleton 
from fish to man is clear in its main outlines as shown in this exhibit. 

The FIRST STAGE represents the earliest true fishes by a model of 
a fish in the early stage of evolution of higher bonv*fishes. This fish, 
which breathed by gills in the normal fish way and which perhaps had a 
simple air-sac or lung, must have looked something like a trout, but its 
tail was more like that of a shark. The body moved forward in the water 
by a wriggling movement caused by the contraction of the regularly 
arranged muscle segments along either side of the body. The axis of the 
body was an elastic rod called the notochord, similar to that which 
appears in the embryonic stages of all higher backboned animals, in- 
cluding man. The fins were composed of rays serving as keels and rudders. 

The SECOND STAGE represents a long step in advance. It is based 
on a fossil fish named Eusthenopteron, from the Upper Devonian of 
Canada. This fish still had gills but there is some evidence that it also 
possessed an air-sac or lung. It had two pairs of paddles, corresponding 
to the fore and hind limbs respectively of four-footed land animals. 

The THIRD STAGE, from the Carbohiferous Age, represents the 
oldest known type of four-footed animals. The skeleton of the hands, 
feet and limbs is much more developed than in the previous stages. There 
are five digits on each of the hands and feet. 

The FOURTH STAGE represents the primitive reptilian or lizard- 
like stage from the Lower Permian of Texas. The skeleton on the whole 
is not greatly different from the preceding stage, except in detail, but 
the limbs are better developed. 

The FIFTH STAGE represents an advanced mammal-like reptile 
(Cynognathus) from the Upper Triassic of South Africa. In this form the 

ANTHROPOLOGY 1 59 



limbs arc bettei adapted foi running, and there- arc man) features oi 

the skull, backbone, and limbs thai approach the condition in mammals. 

For the MX 1 H si \(,l the skeleton of a modern opossum is used. 
It retains in the main the leading characters oi the skeleton ol the older 
lossil mammals. This form has five-toed grasping hands and feet, by 
means of which it climbs about in the trees. It has kept a relatively low 

t\ pe ol skull, teeth, and brain. 

In the SEVENTH STAGE we come to Notharctus, a form that lies 
near the lower limits ol the older of primates to which man belongs. 
These animals were thoroughly adapted to life in the trees but they had 
much larger eves and bigger brains than any of the preceding stages. 

The EIGHTH STAGE is represented by the skeleton ol the gibbon, 
an East Asiatic ape which is a tree-living descendant of the first famih 
of the tailless or man-like apes. When on the ground it is the onh 
existing man-like ape which normally walks on its hind legs. Its skeleton 
begins to be almost human in many ways but the arms are excessiveh long. 

The NINTH STAGE is represented by our distant cousins, the gorilla 
(below) and the chimpanzee (above). These apes retain the essential 
characters of fossil apes from India and South Africa, some of which 
approached quite near to the oldest known fossil men. The ape brain is 
much more developed than the brains of lower animals, and ape intelli- 
gence at times is almost human. 

In the TENTH STAGE, we see that the human skeleton is built on 
the same general plan as that of the chimpanzee, gorilla, and gibbon, 
but that in man the backbone, pelvis, and limbs are modified to enable 
him to walk on his hind legs and to use his forelegs as arms and hands 
rather than as supports. His brain is much larger and more highly 
developed than in the apes. 

OSBORN HALL OF THE AGE OF MAN 

This hall is devoted to early man and his contemporaries, the mam- 
moths and mastodons, and the giant ground sloths of South America. 
The visitor learns what is known of the early history of our own race as 
shown by the remains of early man and the implements he used. As fossil 
remains of man are rare and usually very fragmentary, these are repre- 
sented mainly by casts, but they include examples of all of the more 
perfect and noteworthy specimens that have been found, from Pithecan- 
thropus and Smanthropus to NEANDERTHAL and CRO-MAGNON. 

In the surrounding cases are some of the principal skeletons and 
skulls of animals mostly of the Pleistocene Age (see Time Chart on 
p. 51) known to have been associated with man especiallv in North and 
South America. Skeletons and skulls on the right side of the hall show 
the evolution of the Proboscidea. They fall naturally into two groups: 
first, the mastodons; and second, the mammoths and elephants. In the 
former division, beginning near the entrance of the hall, are the most 
primitive mastodons, with two upper and two lower tusks, and a very 

160 




THE FAMILY TREE OF MAN. The evolution and relationships of the principal branches 
of mankind and of anthropoid apes. 



short proboscis. The succeeding cases show the gradual reduction of the 
number of teeth and the shortening of the front part of the skull for 
the accommodation of the longer proboscis found in all of the later 
stages of mastodons and mammoths. 

On the left is a group illustrating the famous asphalt trap of Rancho 
la Brea at Los Angeles, California, and fossils from South America, the 
most striking of which is the group of giant ground sloths. There are 
also good examples of gigantic relatives of the armadillo, the glyptodonts 
or "carved-toothed" animals. 

Among other strange extinct animals are the camel-like MACRAU- 
CHENIA, and the rhinoceros-like TOXODON. These evolved in South 
America during the Age of Mammals when it was an island continent 
as Australia is today. 

On the walls are mural decorations painted by Charles R. Knight, 
showing the typical groups of Pleistocene animals of North and South 
America and Europe that were associated with early man. 

ANTHROPOLOGY 161 



In the II \LL <>I I III \ \ 1 URAL HISTORY OF MAN we see 
models ol vai ions skulls, ranging from the earliest Pi imates of the Eocene 
Period, through the monkeys and apes ol the Miocene and Pliocene, to 
the subhuman and human races oi the Pleistocene and Recent ages. 

I he exhibits in the central aisle ol the HALL OF THE AGE OF 
M \.\ deal mainly with the older races ol mankind as shown by their 
lossil remains and In preserved fragments of their handiwork. 

MEN OF THE STONE AGE. Here we see a representation ol the 
newly discovered Australopithecus o\ South Africa, a skull cast of Trinil, 
or Java "ape-man," and skeletal remains 01 cases representing Peking 
Man. Piltdown Man. Heidelberg Man, Neanderthal Man, and Cro- 
Magnon Man. An excellent series of sculptured restorations of these 
types, lour of which are illustrated below, have been made and are 
generally considered as embodying the most recent ^scientific deductions 
as to the general appearance of these primitive races of mankind. The 
earliest of them takes man back at least to the lower Pleistocene, esti- 
mated at 1,000,000 years ago. 

Weapons and implements of rough and polished stone and ol bone 
are exhibited as evidence of the gradual building-up of human culture 
through the "rough stone" and "polished stone" ages of Man's pre- 
historic period. Reproductions of the cave paintings of Cro-Magnon 
man in France and Spain show the artistic ability of the early stock 
which first represents modern man in Europe. 

A series of mural paintings by Charles R. Knight over the doorways 
of the Hall of the Age of Man gives a vivid idea of the various races of 
early man as seen by the artist in harmony with our best scientific 
knowledge. 

The HALL OF PREHISTORIC CULTURES on the second floor 
also exhibits the early arts and industries of the European Cave Men 
and Lake Dwellers, as well as North American prehistoric men. 

RESTORATIONS OF HEAD AND SHOULDERS OF EARLY MAN. These restorations were made 
by Professor J. M. McGregor following scientific principles and utilizing the skull-remains 
of the various types as a starting point. They are as follows: 



1. Trinil Ape-Man 
(Pithecanthropus 
erectus) 



Piltdown Man 

(Eoanthropus 

dawsoni) 



Neanderthal Man 
(Homo neander- 
thalensis) 



Cro-Magnon Man 
Homo sapiens cro- 
magnonensis) 




USES OF BIRCHBARK AMONG THE EASTERN WOODLANDS INDIANS. (From a minia- 
ture diorama in the Woodlands Indians Hall) 



LIVING RACES OF MAN 
The Woodlands Indians 

Walking to the left on entering the Museum from 77th Street, we 
meet first the Indians of New York and New England. The successive 
exhibits are so arranged that the visitor can imagine himself traveling 
across the United States from east to west. 

Although called the Eastern Woodlands Indians Hall (northeastern 
United States and Canada), the exhibits in this hall include the South- 
eastern and Mackenzie culture areas, the former joining the Eastern 
Woodlands on the south, the latter on the northwest. The whole Eastern 
WOodlands area was in forest and reached westward from the Atlantic 
coast to the Mississippi River. Objects on display show that these Indians 
lived in the forest. The materials they used came from the forest, and 
this fact influenced their houses, tools, weapons, clothing, and ornaments, 
so that they are readily distinguished from those of other areas. 

These forest Indians were primarily hunters and fishermen but they 
also ate wild rice and maple sugar. They grew corn, beans, squash, 
tobacco and other plants where the climate allowed. (See miniature 
dioramas at north side of hall.) Their woodland environment led to 
simple industries dependent upon the raw materials that were at hand 
and adaptable to their daily needs. 

Wood was used for canoes, mortars, spoons, bowls, dishes, houses and 
wood splint baskets. Bark of various kinds was a favorite material. For 
example, the birchbark industry is illustrated not only by a diorama but 
by containers and ornaments in many of the cases. Bark like that of the 
basswood tree was also shredded to make the fiber for weaving bags. 

Skins were originally used for costumes, but, since the W'oodlands 
area was one of the first regions of North America to be influenced by 
European contact, cloth was often bought from white traders. Many 
wild plants and trees furnished fiber from which these Indians made 
good string and cord for making fish-nets and for weaving bags. Every 
well-equipped house required mats for the floor and for sleeping. 

ANTHHQtQLOGY 163 



*#•■ 



J!***- 







IVM 



EASTERN WOODLANDS AGRICULTURE. A miniature diorama showing the Iroquois 
Indians of New York State clearing the land and tilling the soil. 




THE NATCHEZ INDIANS OF MISSISSIPPI. The Natchez were well-organized socially, 
advanced in pottery making, weaving, and agriculture. The chiefs possessed 
unusual powers and were carried in litters. Large temples were built upon mounds 
of earth. 



THE SEMINOLE INDIANS OF FLORIDA. (From a miniature diorama in the Woodlands 
Indians Hall) 



* 




^L 













Climate influences the ways <>f life. In this hall, the tribes represent 
a range from near-Arctic Canada t<> sub-tropical Florida, rheii clothing 
varies From fur garments among the Dene and the Cree, to thin dresses 
of commercial cloth among the Seminole. 

A number of miniature' groups along the side walls and in the cases 
show tribal costumes, housing and industries. Especially interesting sub- 
jects are rock shelters, the making of rabbit skin clothing, weaving with 
basswood fiber, making a false face, and the stages by which corn is 
made into bread. 

Travel was on foot. Dugout or bark canoes were used in summer 
where' streams or lakes were accessible. Snowshoes were used in winter, 
and in the north the toboggan was common. 

The dwellings of this area are of several forms. Among these are the 
long rectangular houses of the Iroquois covered with oak bark, the 
dome-shaped huts of Long Island and vicinity which were covered with 
mats and bundles of grass, and the familiar cone-shaped wigwam of the 
Ojibway covered with birchbark. The utensils are of pottery, wood or 
birchbark. Pottery was made by most of the Eastern tribes and seems 
to be associated with farming. The designs are cut in, cord-marked, or 
paddle-stamped, but never painted. 

Bowls, trays and spoons are made of wood and are often decorated 
with animal carvings. The use of birchbark in making light household 
vessels is one of the particular traits of our Eastern Indians. 

These Indians invented canoes, maple sugar, tobacco pipes, cornhusk 
weaving, splint baskets, tump-lines or devices for carrying heavy loads, 
wampum, the game of la crosse, netted snowshoes, the toboggan and 
the water-drum. 

The Indians' history begins with the landing of white men. Many 
of the objects shown in the cases are historic, but others, such as the 
stone, bone and shell objects found in the ground, are usually prehistoric. 
In the exhibits dealing with Manhattan and Staten Island, from which 
the Indians were driven by the first settlers, we can show nothing but 
pottery, stone, bone and shell objects. These local relics will be found 
near the entrance to the hall. On the left are some pottery vessels and 
many small objects made of stone and bone from Manhattan Island, 
Staten Island, Long Island, and Westchester County. Nearby, on the 
same side of the hall, are collections obtained from living Indians of 
the coast region north and south of New York. These are the Penobscot 
and Passamaquoddy of Maine, the Micmac and Malecite of the lower 
provinces of Canada, and a few rare objects from the Delaware who 
once occupied the vicinity of New York City and the State of New Jersey. 
The age and historical relations of these cultures are shown in a large 
label at the left of the entrance. 

A family group of Micmac Indians, in a birchbark cone-shaped house, 
is shown half way down the hall. 

On the opposite side are the Iroquois, whose league included the 
Mohawk, Seneca, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, and later the Tuscarora. 

ANTHROPOLOGY 165 



I Ik \ dominated \'n\ \i»ik and much adjoining territory. The exhibits 
represent particularly the agriculture oi the East, which was carried on 
with rude tools Ia the women. 

In the farthei end ol the hall, on the left, are the collections from the 

jib way, who lived mainl) north of the Great Lakes. They had but 
little agriculture, living chiefly by hunting and fishing and the gathering 

01 wild rice. Beyond the O jib way are the Cree, who lived farther north. 
Opposite the Ojibway arc the great Centra] Algonkin tribes, the 

Menomini and Sauk and Fox, as well as the Siouan Winnebago, who 
lived south and west of the Great Lakes. They too gathered wild rice and 
hunted and fished and also did some fanning. 

In the southeastern portion of the United States, agriculture was 
highly developed. These tribes are represented by the Cherokee and 
\ tic hi. who made pottery, and by the Choctaw and Chitimacha, who made 
fine baskets of cane as well. The Seminole of Florida, though long in- 
fluenced by the white man, have maintained an independent existence in 
the Everglades for nearly a hundred years. Their prehistoric arts are 
illustrated in the table case. They excelled in polishing stones and work- 
ing shell. (See the diorama on the north wall.) 

The Plains Indians 

When we think of Plains Indian life, we think of such terms as "tipi," 
"buffalo," "horse," and large decorated "pipes." The tipi and the pipe 
are especially conspicuous in the center of the hall. 

The art of these Indians is highly original and popular. Painting 
on skin is the usual method, but many designs in beadwork and quills 
are shown. 

Artists look upon the feather headdress of these Indians as the most 
beautiful type of headdress to be found anywhere in the world. With 
this and his highly decorated costume, the Plains Indian is a colorful 
figure. 

Indians of the Plains made up the tribes living west of the Mississippi 
and east of the Rocky Mountains as far south as the valley of the Rio 
Grande and as far north as the Saskatchewan. 

Beginning on the left, the buffalo-hunting tribes: the Plains-Cree, 
Dakota, Crow, Blackfoot, Gros Ventre, Arapaho and Chevenne, occupv 
the greater part of the hall. These tribes did not farm but depended 
almost entirely on the buffalo. They ate the buffalo and used its skin 
to make their clothing. Sometimes a buffalo paunch was used for cooking, 
and horns were made into various tools and weapons. The spirit of the 
buffalo was thought to be a powerful ally and was called upon to cure 
sickness, to ward off evil, and to give aid in the hunt. Wherever the 
buffalo herds led the way, the more nomadic Plains tribes moved their 
tipis and followed. When most of the buffalo were wiped out, the entire 
life of the Plains Indians was revolutionized. 

On the right, near the entrance, are the village tribes of the Plains: 
the Mandan, with whom Lewis and Clark passed the winter of 1804-1805: 

166 




A DAKOTA WARRIOR. 

(Model in Plains Indians Hall) 



A DAKOTA WOMAN. 

(Model in Plains Indians Hall) 



the Hidasta, who now live with them; and the Omaha. Kansa, Iowa, 
and Pawnee. All these tribes raised corn and lived in large earth-covered 
houses. A small model of one of these houses stands near the exhibits. 

In the center of this hall is a Blackfoot Indian tipi with paintings 
of otters on the sides, representing a vision of the owner. This tipi has 
been fitted up to show the home life of a typical buffalo-hunting Indian. 

There were numerous soldier societies among the Plains Indians 
which included practically all the adult males. Each society had a special 
dance and special costumes. (See the Arapaho cases for costumes of 
dancers.) There were other dances connected with tribal religious cere- 
monials, the best known and most important of which is the Sun Dance, 
shown by a model at the left of the tipi. The Sun Dance was held yearly 

ANTHROPOLOGY 167 




A BLACKFOOT INDIAN TIPI. The interior has been furnished with full scale models 
showing typical Plains Indian life of the nineteenth century. 



AN HIDATSA EARTHLODGE. A section of this model has been cut away to show the 
interior. Houses of this type were used formerly by most of the semi-agricultural 
tribes of the Plains. 




in the early summer to keep a vow made the winter before b) some 
member of the tribe who wished a sit k relative to recover, The dance 
involved self-torture, great physical endurance and a last lasting three 
days. 

In the center of the hall is a medicine pipe, held in awe by the Indians 
and dearly parted with; also the contents of a medicine bundle. The 
contents of another medicine bundle, belonging to a leading medicine 
man of the Blackfool tribe, together with the headdress which he wore in 
ceremonies, are in a case near the- tower. Other remarkable bundles, 
particularly the skull bundle, are in the Pawnee rase on the north wall. 

The Plains Indians are noted lor their painted buffalo robes and for 
their quillwork. which was superseded by beadwork when glass beads 
became available in historical times. They have a highly developed 
decorative art in which simple geometric designs are the elements of 
composition. This is one of the most interesting features of their art. 
(See Dakota case.) 

Indians of the Southwest 

This region is famous for two reasons: its picturesque living Indian 
tribes, and the large number of ruins built by prehistoric Indians. Since 
many of the latter are placed upon high rocks or in the walls of canyons, 
they are spoken of as Cliff Dwellings. 

This hall presents collections from both the prehistoric and the living 
Indians of the Southwest. On the right are the nomadic or wandering 
tribes: the Apache, Navajo, Pima, Papago, and Havasupai. A life-size 
exhibit, the first of a series along the right-hand wall, shows the home 
life of the San Carlos Apache. Next is a larger group showing a Navajo 
hogan in Canyon de Chelly, and the Night Chant ceremony. The painted 
background of this group gives a view of the canyon, and in a cave of its 
walls one may see the famous White House ruins. 

Navajo silverwork and blankets are shown in nearby cases. The 
Navajo are the modern blanket makers. They card, spin and weave 
the wool of the sheep they raise with simple implements and looms. This 
art has arisen since the coming of the Spaniards and it is known to have 
passed through several stages in the last sixty years. Some of the older 
types of blankets shown here contain yarn which was gotten by cutting 
or raveling from imported flannels, called in Spanish "bayeta," from 
which these blankets get their name. These are either bright red or old 
rose in color, resulting from cochineal dye. Several blankets are made 
of yarn bought ready-dyed from traders and are called Germantowns. 
The greater number, however, are made of yarn of native spinning, 
dyed with native vegetable and mineral dyes. 

The Navajo are a large and widely scattered tribe. During the winter 
they live in log houses, but in milder weather they camp in the slight 
shelter of a cliff or windbreak and shade made of brush. They live by 
raising corn in the moist valleys, and on the flesh of their many flocks 
of sheep. 

ANTHROPOLOGY 169 



I lit' Western apache live along the upper portion of the Gila and 
S ; 1 1 1 Rivers, where the) [arm, gather natural products and hunt. Indians 
related to these, under Geronimo, raided the settlements of southern 
Arizona and northern Mexico and evaded our troops for years. They 
live in grass-thatched houses 01 in the open under the shade of flat-topped 
opened sided shekels. 

1 he Eastern Apache lived in buffalo skin tipis. They went far out 
on the plains in search of the herds, avoiding, if possible, the Plains 
tribes, hut fighting them with vigor when necessary. In dress and out- 
ward life they resemble the Plains Indians, but in their legends and 
ceremonies the) are like their Southwestern relatives and neighbors. 

In the first alcove to the right of the entrance is a basketry exhibit 
showing the types of baskets and the materials, tools, and techniques 
used by the Southwestern tribes. This exhibit is in contrast with the 
corresponding case of pottery on the opposite side. Not the environment, 
but social habits, catised one people to develop pottery and the other to 
make the easily carried and not easily breakable baskets. 

At the left of the hall, as we enter, are exhibits for the modern village 
Indians — first types of pottery from San Ildefonso, Laguna, Santo 
Domingo, Zuni, and Hopi. 



A NAVAJO MEDICINE LODGE. For the celebration of the Navajo Night Chant a 
special house is erected. The medicine man is laying down an elaborate ceremonial 
sand-painting. Group in Southwest Indian Hall. 



*MM* t # 





HOPI SNAKE DANCE. This is given on alternate years by the Snake and Antelope 
priests in all but two of the Hopi villages to insure the rain needed for the crops. 
(From a miniature diorama in the Southwest Indian Hall) 



The Pueblo Indians live in large community houses, built of stone 
or adobe, often with several stepped-back stories. They depend chiefly 
on farming for their food, make a great variety of pottery, and have many 
elaborate religious ceremonies. The nomadic peoples live in tipis or 
small brush and thatched houses which are moved or deserted when 
they are forced to seek the wild game and wild vegetable products which 
furnish much of their food. They make baskets for household purposes 
which are more easily carried than vessels of clay. In the hall are models 
of the pueblos of Taos and Acoma, of prehistoric cliff-dwellings, and of 
the houses used by the Navajo. 

The inhabitants of Zuni are believed to be the descendants of the 
first people seen by the Spaniards in 1540. Their former villages, many 
of which are now in ruins, were probably the "Seven Cities of Cibola," 
for which Coronado was looking at that time. Although there were 
missionaries among them for about three hundred years, they have kept 
many of their own religious ceremonies. Many ceremonial objects, as 
well as those of everyday life, are shown in this alcove. 

In the Hopi section are costumes, masks, images, and basketry plaques 
used in their ceremonies. Their best known ceremony is the Snake 
Dance, supposed to increase rainfall and the crops. Some of the regalia 
worn for the Snake Dance are shown, as well as a small model of a single 
phase of the ceremony. In the center of the hall a table case shows a 
Hopi altar, of the type that figures in nearly all Hopi ceremonies. 

In the center of the hall, as well as in the farther half of the left side, 
are special exhibits for the prehistoric Indians of the Southwest. Near 
the center is an exhibit showing how many prehistoric ruins have been 
dated by the tree-ring method. A chart at the entrance to the hall gives 
the successive culture periods for the Southwest, beginning with early 
Basket Makers and ending with the modern Pueblo villages. Typical 
objects made by the Basket Makers are shown in small cases in the center 
of the hall and in upright cases to the left. 

ANTHROPOLOGY 171 



Two of the most famous prehistoric Southwestern ruins are Bonito 
and Aztec. A model ol the latter stands in the center, and near the 
entrance is an exhibit ol turquoise from Pueblo Bonito. Other collections 
from these two niins are shown in (uses at the left of the hall. One con- 
tains a remarkable collection of pottery from Pueblo Bonito. Similar 
black-on-white wares with very elaborate and splendidly executed designs, 
shown in adjacent cases, are from Rio Tularosa, and in part from cliff- 
dwell in»s. In another case is found material gathered by the Museum 
expedition which explored the Galisteo Valley, New Mexico. 

Other exhibits in this area illustrate the culture of the living Indians 
of California. Most outstanding of the achievements of these tribes was 
their basketry, some examples of which are among the finest produced 
in the world. 

Indians of the North Pacific Coast 

The Jesup North Pacific Hall is devoted to the Indians living in the 
heavily forested and mountainous coastal belt extending from the 
Columbia River in Washington to Mt. St. Elias in southern Alaska, as 
well as on the offshore islands. They are the most skillful wood workers 
on the American continent, as shown by the models of their houses; their 
intricately carved and painted totem, house, and grave posts; their cere- 
monial masks, boxes, implements, and tools. They depended on their 
forest environment for housing, clothing, and utensils and they depended 
on the products of the sea for food. Travel and transportation were 
mainly by water and they skillfully hollowed out giant cedar logs for 
canoes like the large Haida war canoe in the center of the hall. 



MODEL OF A KWAKIUTL VILLAGE, VANCOUVER ISLAND, showing plank houses 
facing the sea with canoes drawn up on the shore. Crests of the owners are 
painted on the walls of houses and carved on the house posts in front. 




A PIPE 

carved in the form of 

a whale by the 

Tlingit Indians 

of Alaska. 



Except for two tribes, the Shuswap and Thompson, who live in the 
interior of British Columbia, the exhibits are arranged in the order in 
which the various tribes are encountered in going from south to north 
along the coast of Washington, British Columbia, and Alaska. On the 
right side of the hall are the Bella Coola, Tsimshian, Haida; on the left, 
the Nootka, Kwakiutl, Tlingit. 

The murals of Will S. Taylor depict not only the industries, religious 
and social life of these Indians, but also their heavily forested and fog- 
and-rain-drenched environment. The murals on the right side show 
ceremonials and religious life. On the left they show daily life and 
industries. Games are illustrated over the entrance and at the farther 
end of the hall, the return of a victorious war party. 

They were also skilled in weaving with mountain goat wool and 
shredded bark and in making baskets. Notice the Chilkat ceremonial 
blankets a little over halfway along the hall, on the left, and the Tlingit 
baskets at the end. These Indians have likewise distinguished themselves 
in the carving of stone, bone, and ivory, examples of which are shown 
for the various tribal groups. 

Outstanding perhaps is the wealth of decoration seen on all their 
products. The typical grotesque art motifs, based on the distortion of 
animal forms, are found in equal abundance on useful and ceremonial 
objects. 

ANTHROPOLOGY 173 




ESKIMO WOMAN FISHING THROUGH THE ICE. (Group in the Eskimo Hall) 



c&m 




MODEL OF AN ESKIMO WINTER HOUSE, CUMBERLAND SOUND. The side of one 
house has been cut away to show interior. Outside are the dogs, dog sled, and 
the storage racks for meat. 



Eskimo 

1 he Eskimo are often named as the primitive people who have made 
the most complete adjustment to their environment. They inhabit the 
northern shores and neighboring islands of North America, from eastern- 
most Siberia and the Aleutians to East Greenland and Labrador. All 
these Eskimo, who differ somewhat in details of culture according to 
locality, are represented here, though not with equal completeness. 

Contact with the white man has changed the Eskimo's way of life, 
but he continues to use many of his traditional tools, implements and 
distinctive articles of fur clothing. The Eskimo are hunters and fisher- 
men. In summer they hunt the caribou, musk ox and birds, often inland. 
Their dwellings at this season are tent-like frames covered with caribou 
or seal skin. 

In winter they hunt sea mammals, especially seals. Their winter 
houses are of stone built over shallow excavations and are covered with 
earth. The familiar snow house is the traditional winter dwelling of 
certain tribes but is unknown in Alaska and in most of Greenland. 
Models on exhibit show how the snow house is built. The Eskimo are 
skilled in the making of fur clothing and skin boats. The clever imple- 
ments they make of wood, bone and ivory are often decorated with 
naturalistic cut-in designs. Many of the objects shown here are from the 
collections made by the Peary, Comer, MacMillan, and the Stefansson- 
Anderson expeditions. 

Near the entrance of the corridor is an Eskimo woman fishing through 
the ice. She has made a windbreak with ice blocks. The fishing rod and 
hook and the long ladle are made of bone. She keeps the water from 
freezing while she is fishing by using the ladle to break and remove ice. 
In another case an Eskimo woman is cooking inside a snow hut that is 
lined with seal skin. She is using a stone lamp filled with seal oil which 
provides the flame for her cooking. 

ANTHROPOLOGY 175 



Indians of Mexico and Central America 

At the west stairwa) on the second floor, we enter an alcove and a 
1 1 :i 1 1 denoted to the ancient ci\ili/ations of Mexico and Central America. 
The alcove contains a series oi small dioramas showing the varieties of 
climate and landscape in Middle America, a large series of gold and 
jade objects, and pottery vessels typical of several of the culture areas 
into which Middle America can be divided. 

Entering the central part of the main hall, one faces a cast of a 
gigantic stone head of the Olmec culture. Along the sides of the central 
portion are reproductions of some- of the great carved monuments of 
the Maya sites of Copan and Quirigua, and a series of cases containing a 
number of the more beautiful objects in the Museum's collections. 

Four of the alcoves along the right side of the hall are given over to 
each of the four major cultural periods in the history of the Valley of 
Mexico, the others to the Central Vera Cruz area, the Huastec area, the 
Maya, and the cultures of El Salvador and Costa Rica. 

The left side of the hall deals with Western and Northern Mexico, 
with the cultures of Oaxaca and with a number of the major sculptured 
monuments of the Aztec of Central Mexico. The far end of the hall is 
Mayan, with several models of Maya buildings and two large cases 




AZTEC CORN GODDESS. This outstanding 
example of Aztec stone sculpture is notable 
for its simple naturalistic presentation. It 
was found in Ixtapalapa, a town near 
Mexico City. 




OLMEC STYLE CEREMONIAL AXE IN 
GREEN JADE. One of the largest and 
finest Olmec jades known, this is one 
of the great treasures of the Middle 
American collection. 



containing examples of Maya sculptures. These original pieces are from 
Copan and from Northern Yucatan, the latter being all that remain from 
a collection made by John Lloyd Stephens, the "discoverer" of the Maya 
civilization early in the last century. 

The walls and landings of the west stairway between the first and 
third floors exhibit reproductions of various Maya and Central American 
sculptures. 

CULTURES REPRESENTED: The material represented in this hall 
shows the history and cultural accomplishments of some of the more 
civilized peoples of the New World, sometimes referred to as those of 
Middle America or Mesoamerica. Within this area there were many 
local cultures, but all of them had characteristics in common which set 
them off as a unit distinct from the somewhat less highly developed cul- 
tures of North America, and both the lesser and higher cultures of South 
America. Several distinctive features of the Middle American cultures 
are the use of lime mortar in building and the existence of complex 
calendar systems and hieroglyphic or picture writing. 

The higher Middle American cultures lasted for a period of nearly 
3,000 years, so time is an important factor in any consideration of them. 
The following basic time schedule is generally applied: 

15,000 B.C-1,000 B.C. - Period of Early Man. Only meager remains 
of this earliest period have yet been discovered in Middle America, 
most important being the skeleton of Tepexpan Man, estimated to 
date from 10,000 B.C. No materials from this period are on exhibit. 
1,000 B.C.-l A.D. — Pre-Classic Period. Variouslv known as the 



ANTHROPOLOGY 177 



\i ( li;ii( 01 Middle Culture Period, this is repi esented by j)eoples living 
in permanent villages depending on farming, but without the i»reat 
ceremonial buildings ol later periods. Pottery-making and sculpture 
in (i lay were impoi tant. 

1 A.D.-900 A.I). Classic Period. This is the great period of Middle 
American civilization, taking in the so-called Old Empire of the 
Maya and the Teotihuacan, Zapotec , and Totonac cultures ol Mexico 
proper. It is the period ol the great cities and many ol the sculptured 
monuments shown in the hall. 

!)()() A.D.-1520 A.I). - Post-Classit Period. With the close of the 
Classic Period, new and seemingly more militaristic orders were estab- 
lished, represented In the New Empire or Mexican Period in Yucatan 
and In the succeeding Toltec and Aztec dominations ol Central 
Mexico. 1 lie period ends with Cortez's conquest of Mexico and the 
almost complete destruction of the native cultures. 



SCALE MODEL OF MAYA TEMPLE. The temple on lop of a high pyramid at Tikal 
Guatemala, is shown here in miniature. This is one of a number of architectural 
models on display. 




GOLD LIP PLUG. This extraordinarily 
fine ornament is attributed to the 
Mixtec culture of Oaxaca in southern 
Mexico. 




NATURE OF OBJECTS. It is impossible to present a well-rounded 
picture of the ancient Middle American civilizations, for, with rare 
exceptions, it is only the more lasting objects of pottery, stone, bone, 
shell and metal that have survived the destructive action of time and 
weather. Such things as the wooden drums of the Aztec are therefore 
great treasures. However, in our attempt to understand the life of 
ancient Middle America, we can rely heavily on the small number of 
native manuscripts in picture-writing that have been preserved and on 
the remarkably full accounts of native life written by the early Spaniards. 

ARCHITECTURE. The varied and imposing architecture of Middle 
America may be seen in the models and illustrations distributed around 
the hall. The buildings preserved are either temple structures built 
on pyramid-like platforms or are thought to be housing for the priests 
or persons concerned with the elaborate religious ceremonies. Ornate 
tombs are also important, the full-sized reproduction of one at Monte 
Alban being a good example of this architectural form. Little remains, 
and nothing is shown, of the ordinary living quarters, as these were 
apparently of wood or thatch, similar to those in use at the present 
time and just as impermanent. 

SCULPTURE. It is in sculpture that we may best measure the tre- 
mendous attainments of the ancient peoples of Middle America. Their 
religions with their many gods required many images shown in a great 
variety of human and animal forms. These are often grotesque and 
hard for us to appreciate, but they are usually conceived according to 
universally accepted standards of beauty and high artistic quality. An 
early and important style is that seen in the Olmec sculptures, which 
range from the most delicate of jade carvings to the colossal stone head 
from southern Vera Cruz, mounted in the center of the hall. In the 
Olmec style, the human figure is presented with a suggestion of Negroid 
features, often in combination with those of the jaguar, an animal that 



ANTHROPOLOGY 179 



played an important role in the symbolism of the early cultures. It is 
curious thai the Olme* carvers, who seem to represent one of the earliest 
<>1 the high cultures p\ Middle America, woe the greatest masters in the 
carving of jade and produced sculptural forms most readily appreciated 

by us. 

M;i\a sculpture is more complex and appears to reflect an involved 
religious belief and ritual. I he- great skill of the native sculptors is 
apparent in the Copan and Quirigua stelae or tall stone slabs, where 
intricate detail is combined with the handling of enormous masses. Our 
respect for these ancient peoples is further increased when we realize that 
these great works were done without the benefit ol metal tools. 

Many and varied figures in baked clay also show a great technical 
and artistic ability. Especially interesting is the historical series of 
figurines from the Pre-Classic and Teotihuacan horizons of the Valley of 
Mexico. The succession of styles has been used by the archaeologist as 
a sensitive marker of culture change. 

WRITING AND THE CALENDAR. The highest developments of the 
art of writing in the New World were attained by the Maya. A number 

THE GOD XIPE-TOTEC This life-sized image of terra cotta shows the wearing of 
the skin of a sacrificial victim. From near Texcoco, across the lake from Mexico 
City, the figure dates from the Toltec period. 





MAYA CORN GOD. From the great Maya center of Copan, Honduras, this life-size 
stone figure is certainly one of the great masterpieces of Maya sculpture. It dates 
from the latter half of the Classic Period when Maya art and architecture saw its 
highest development. 

of examples of their picture-writing are found on the reproductions of 
the stelae and on other objects in the hall. A major portion of these 
texts concerns the statement of dates in the elaborate calendrical system 
brought to highest perfection by the Maya, but also used by the Zapotec, 
Aztec and other groups. However, most of the non-calendrical parts of 
the Maya texts remain undeciphered. Both the Maya and the Mexican 
peoples also painted their hieroglyphics in books of paper or leather 
known as codices. Only a few still remain from Pre-Conquest times. 

POTTERY. Vessels of baked clay are abundant in all collections from 
prehistoric sites in Mexico. Their interest is two-fold, in giving us a 
knowledge of the daily life of the native peoples and as one of the 
most important measuring devices in the studv of the history of our 



ANTHROPOLOGY 



181 







*s 



i^W 



OLMEC WOODEN MASK. This is a unique specimen, being the only wooden object 
known from the Olmec culture. The sensitive sculpturing of the mouth portion is 
partly hidden by several remaining pieces of a jade mosaic and by a gummy 
substance used to hold the mosaic in place. 



area. The modern archaeologist relies to a large extent on the broken 
pottery found in the kitchen middens or refuse heaps of living sites. By 
carefully excavating and analyzing the changes in pottery types from 
the lower to the higher levels in these refuse heaps, he is able to estimate 
the changes of styles and of peoples through time and from area to area. 
An example of this method of reading history by examination of pottery 
layers is shown in the Huastec alcove on the right side of the hall. 

METALS. The use of metals appeared late in Middle American history 
— at the beginning of the Post-Classic Period. The techniques of metal- 
working occur much earlier in South America and it is assumed that 
these arts were diffused northward into Middle America. Nevertheless, 
the gold-work of Mexico is considered to be of higher technical and 
artistic quality than any other in the New World. 

JADE. Various kinds of semi-precious stones were used in Middle 
America for ornament or insignia, but jade was the substance most 
highly prized. The Middle American jades are classified as jadeite, but 
are distinct from the Asiatic types. Several styles of jade carving are 
recognized, the finest being those of the Olmec and the Maya, of which 
outstanding examples are to be seen in the alcove to the left of the 
entrance to the main hall. 

182 ANTHROPOLOGY 



CAST OF OLMEC STONE HEAD. The original of this gigantic stone head lies in the 
jungle in southern Vera Crux at the Olmec site of San Lorenzo. It is nine feet in 
height and weighs an estimated 15 tons. 









MAYA POTTERY BOWL 
WITH CARVED DECORATION. 
A fine vessel from 
northern Yucatan dating 
from late in the 
Classic Period. 



CARVED SLATE MIRROR BACK. 

The elegant design and the 

curvilinear motifs around the 

edge of the disc place this piece 

in the so-called Tajin culture 

of central Vera Cruz. It is 

probably late Classic in date. 





MUSICAL WIND INSTRUMENTS OF ANCIENT PERU. The wind instruments of the 
ancient inhabitants of Peru, as illustrated above, included the panpipe or syrinx 
shown in the center; resonator whistles (left); trumpets of clay and wood; and a 
great variety of simple whistles. The pottery figure at lower left shows how the 
panpipe was played. 



Indians of South America 

This hall contains Indian exhibits from all the South American 
countries except Uruguay. The largest portion of the exhibits illustrates 
the prehistory of the peoples of Peru and Bolivia and is arranged in 
the front of the hall. 

Unlike the ancient peoples of Mexico and Central America, the 
Peruvians had no written language. They were tillers of the soil and 
raised potatoes, oca, quinoa, beans, coca and cotton. They domesticated 
the llama as a beast of burden and the alpaca as a source of wool. They 
excelled in the manufacture and decoration of pottery vessels, in metal 
work and in textiles. 

Their gold and silver objects, such as beads, cups, pins, plates and 
ear ornaments, show a high degree of skill in the beating, soldering and 
casting of metals. 

In weaving, the Peruvians were perhaps first among prehistoric peoples 
of the world, many of their textiles shown here being unsurpassed to 

ANTHROPOLOGY 1 85 



the present day. The materials used were cotton and the wool of the 
llama, alpaca and vicuna. In the cases near the entrance are examples 
ol these textiles and the fibers, spindles, threads, looms and other equip- 
ment used in their manufacture. At the center of the hall are beautiful 
examples ol fabrics decorated with feathers. Some ol the costumes in 
use at the time ol the Conquest aie displayed at the right of the entrance 
hall. To the hit are complex embroideries made by the people of 
Paracas before the beginning ol the Christian era. 

On the right side ol the hall are collections lrom important localities 
in Peru, followed by exhibits from Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, Brazil 
and Panama. In Case 57, near the center of the hall, selected pieces 
ol pottery show the different forms and decorations which distinguish 
the various important cultures of Peru and Bolivia. As far as our present 
knowledge permits, the changes which occurred in the course of time are 
also indicated. Each of these cultures is shown in greater detail in 
individual cases. 

Outstanding is the beautiful work of the Xazca people who excelled 
among all American potters in their use of color. This display is 
arranged to show the wide representation of mythological creatures, birds 
and animals, with one section devoted to the differences which dis- 
tinguished two separate traditions in their motifs. 



POTTERY OF THE MOCHICA OR EARLY CHIMU PERIOD. A warrior in full regalia is 
depicted on the vessel at the left. In his right hand he holds a mace; in his left, 
a shield, spear thrower, and javelins. The central piece is a "portrait" jar. The 
vessel at the right shows a hand to hand combat between mythical beings. 







NAZCA POTTERY. By far the most skillful use of color in Peruvian ceramics is seen 
on such specimens as these. As some of the mythological beings depicted also 
appear on earlier Paracas embroideries a cultural continuity of the two periods 
is indicated. 




A SECTION OF EMBROIDERED MANTLE, PARACAS PERIOD, PERU. Possibly 2000 years 
old, Paracas embroideries are famous for the intricate use of rich colors in strange 
designs and figures. Trophy heads, frequently portrayed, are seen here pendant 
on the staffs held over the shoulder. 



ANTHROPOLOGY 



187 




A PERUVIAN WOMAN'S WORK BAS- 
KET. Containing carded fiber, spin- 
dles, bobbins, and other equipment 
for spinning and weaving. 



PARACAS EMBROIDERY. A fine example of highly conventionalized treatment of 
a cat figure. 








; m 



A PERUVIAN TAPESTRY. An excellent tapestry from Pachacamac, Peru, with slits 
left open between color areas as part of the design. 



In special exhibits are grouped such things as musical instruments, 
whistling water jars, examples of intentionally deformed human heads 
and trephined skulls showing the successful practice of a delicate surgical 
operation by the ancient Peruvians. 

Much of our knowledge of their daily life we owe to a fortunate com- 
bination of climatic conditions and tribal customs. Along the coast of 
Peru, where the extreme dryness of the climate has preserved perishable 
materials for centuries, are more extensive burial places than anywhere 
else in America. Countless thousands of bodies were buried with such 
things as had been most useful and prized during life or were considered 
to be most serviceable in a future life. Examples of these mummy bundles 
are displayed, and it was from such as these that many objects in the 
hall were obtained. 

The mummy in the case at the west side of the room was found in 
a copper mine at Chuquicamata, Chile. The body is that of an Indian 
miner who w T as killed by the falling of rocks and earth w r hile he was 
getting out the copper ore (atacamite) used by the Indians in making 
implements and ornaments in prehistoric times. The tissues of the body 

ANTHROPOLOGY 1 89 




MODEL OF ALACALUF HUT. Used by 
nomadic fishermen in southern Chile, 
this type of shelter is well suited to 
the cool, rainy environment. The 
floor plan of these huts is oval, about 
13 by 8 feet, with a fireplace in 
the center between the two en- 
trances. Sea lion skins serve as cov- 
ering. 



have been preserved by copper sails with which the\ are impregnated. 
The tools he was using at the time ol his death are King beside him in 
the case. 

Much more primitive than any of the prehistoric people just men- 
tioned were the nomadic hunters and fishermen who lived in the southern 
end of the continent and the neighboring islands. Their story from the 
time when they hunted the extinct native American horses and ground 
sloths, about nine to ten thousand years ago, was recovered from caves 
and shell mounds. The simple tools and weapons they used are arranged 
in time-order in a case in the rear of the hall. Near by are examples 
of the equipment of the various tribes still living in the same region 
at the present time. 

In neighboring cases are exhibits for other living Indians of South 
America. As there are a great many distinct tribes, sometimes living in 
widely different geographical areas, the collection is far from complete. 
An example of native life in the tropical rain forest of northeastern 
Pern is shown in a miniature group of the Montana Indians. They raise 
plan tains and cassava and hunt small game, so their equipment is 
naturally specialized for these occupations. This latter exhibit is tem- 
porarily on display in the MEX OF MONTANA HALL: a temporary 
exhibit hall. 

The Pacific 

Two halls are devoted to the peoples of the Pacific Islands and of 
Australia. The first, SOUTH PACIFIC HALL, contains collections 
from Polynesia, Micronesia, Melanesia, New Guinea and Australia. 
Polynesia, as represented by the Maori of New Zealand, extends into 
tin second hall, which is principally devoted to exhibits from the Philip- 
pine Islands, small special exhibits from New Guinea, and special col- 
lections from Java, Sumatra and Borneo. 

The most conspicuous objects in these halls are the Easter Island 
statue, the models of Tahitian and Philippine life, including a Philippine 
tree house, the collection of tattooed heads from New Zealand, and the 
collection ol masks from New Ireland. 



190 ANTHROPOLOGY 




EASTER ISLAND STATUE. Easter Island, in the South Pacific, is famous for the immense 
stone statues found there, from one of which a Museum expedition made the cast 
here illustrated. 



On entering the South Pacific Hall, beyond the Hall of Minerals, the 
visitoi sees a huge stone face, a (ast ol one ol the famous Easter Island 
statues. I his was brought hack in 1935 bv the Templeton Crockei 
Expedition. I hese statues arc unique u> Easter Island. They were found 
sel on stone platforms all around the island. Their origin and exact 
meaning are unknown. 

Directly in the center ol the hall is a Tahitian priest taking part in 
the fire-walking ceremony, in which the participants walk over heated 
lava boulders. On each side is a group showing natives engaged in 
typical activities —grating coconut, preparing kava or plaiting pandanus. 

Just behind the Easter Island statue is a fine Hawaiian feather cape, 
such as was formerly worn by the highest tanks of the Hawaiian society. 
Red and yellow honeysucker leathers, which were collected as taxes. 
were Listened on a netted twine foundation. The value of these garments 
depended on the enormous labor spent on their making. 

The hall is roughly divided into two main sections. In the fust 
hall are shown the collections from Polynesia and Micronesia, while the 
second half is given over to New Guinea. Melanesia and Australia. How- 
ever, it proved impossible to be wholly consistent and to separate Mela- 
nesian Fiji from Samoa and Tonga. 

In the POLYNESIAN section, the examples of decorated native bark 
cloth (tapa) are especially noteworthy, and a number of canoe models 
remind us that these people are daring seafarers. A series of ceremonial 
adzes from the Cook Islands in the farther quarter of the hall shows 
aboriginal carving at its best. 

In the section on the right, the elaborately carved sacred masks, about 
14 feet back of the Tahitian fire-walker, illustrate the type of carving 
characteristic of the Melanesians of New Ireland as do the two delicately 
carved poles against the west wall. 

Another beautiful and distinctive style is found in the carvings of 



POLYNESIAN BARK CLOTH OR TAPA. This cloth was made from the inner bark of 
the paper-mulberry tree which is steeped in water, thinned out with a shell 
scraper, and pounded on a board with a mallet. Designs may be painted on the 
cloth free-hand, but more frequently they are printed from wooden stamps. 





A SECTION OF A MANUS (ADMIRALTY ISLANDS) VILLAGE, reconstructed with scien- 
tific accuracy in every detail; one of many miniature models in the American 
Museum showing native home life and activities. 



the Maori of New Zealand, where a spiral motif is dominant. The series 
of dried and tattooed heads forms one of the most remarkable exhibits 
in the Museum. 

Near the boundary between the two main sections are the AUSTRA- 
LIAN cases with numerous boomerangs and very crude stone tools, 
which should be compared with those in the archaeological hall. The 
farther corner contains a collection from the Admiralty Islands, includ- 
ing a model of a village of the Manus tribe, a lagoon-dwelling, fishing 
people who build their houses on piles far from land. In the right 
corner of the hall are shields, clubs, carvings and household utensils 
from New Guinea. 

The islands of the Pacific Ocean may be divided into two types: the 
high islands which represent remnants of sunken land masses or else the 
result of volcanic action, and the second variety consisting of low coral 
atolls rising not much more than 20 or 25 feet above the sea. The en- 
vironments that these islands provide for their inhabitants are strikingly 
different and have affected the kind of life they are able to lead. 

The high islands are, for the most part, fertile and well covered with 
a variety of vegetation. The coral atolls have little or no soil and support 
a very thin plant life. Although both high and low islands occur in 
various parts of the Pacific, there are two principal areas where the coral 
atolls are specially concentrated: one is in Micronesia and the other in 
the Tuamotu chain of Eastern Polynesia. 

The people who live in these various islands belong to a number of 
different stocks. The Polynesians occupy the easternmost islands and 

ANTHROPOLOGY 1 93 




MASK. TCHAMBULI, 

SEPIK DISTRICT, 

NEW GUINEA. 




CARVED WOODEN HOOK 

USED IN DECORATING 

MEN'S HOUSES IN 

TCHAMBULI, NEW GUINEA. 



SACRED FLUTE, MUNDUGUMOR, NEV 
GUINEA. These flutes, known a 
crocodile spirit children, are so heav 
ily encrusted with shells that the 

are non-functional. 



I 

/ 



¥ 







Left, CARVED HOOK, TCHAMBULI, NEW GUINEA. Right, WAR CHARM, made by the 
people of Pak in the Admiralty Islands. It is worn on the back, and it is believed 
that when a man is slow in going into battle the charm scratches his back and 
urges him on. 



differ significantly from the dark-skinned, frizzly-haired people of Mela- 
nesia on the one hand and from the short, more Mongoloid type found 
in the Micronesian islands. 

Culturally, these three major island groupings also show differences 
that suggest, to a large extent, independent histories. The Polynesians 
manufacture bark cloth and matting, have no pottery, drink kava, fight 
with clubs, and are skilled navigators. They are governed by chiefs who 
trace their ancestry back many generations. The Melanesians make some 
pottery, do grotesque carvings, use bows and arrows and spears for 
hunting and fishing. They have men's cults into which boys are initiated 
and from which women are rigidly excluded. 

The Micronesians live on the chain of small islands extending south 
from Japan to Melanesia. They are characterized by a complex political 
organization, great skill as navigators, and a simple food economy based 
on the sea. 

The peoples of the New Guinea mainland and the interior of some of 
the larger islands of Melanesia can be grouped together as land peoples, 
speaking complex or non-Melanesian languages. 

The aboriginal inhabitants of Australia had one of the simplest 
technologies to be found in the contemporary world. A hunting and food- 
gathering people, their tools and weapons had to be carried with them, 
and almost all the elaborations of their culture were expressed in songs, 
dances and complicated marriage patterns which cannot be shown in 
Museum cases. 



ANTHROPOLOGY 1 95 



PHILIPPINE TREE HOUSE. 







Collections from the Philippines and Malaysia 

This hall is reached bv turning to the right in the South Sea Island 
Hall. 

The side aisles display Philippine Island objects. The farther section 
of the hall contains exhibits from other parts of Malaysia with an in- 
teresting series of marionettes from Java. 

At the right of the entrance is a case containing life casts of faces, 
noses and hair from the different races represented in this hall, also 
charts of stature and head form, with distribution maps. 

In the center is a model of a Filipino bamboo-walled and thatch- 
roofed house. At the far end, a native tree house dominates the scene, 
and on the left may be seen the model of a woman weaving a garment on 
a native loom. 

The visitor should note that, like the African Negroes, the Malayan 
tribes represented in this hall use iron tools. The numerous iron weapons 






196 



— spears, battle-axes, and krises (daggers with serpentine blades) — are 
especially remarkable. 

On the U'li side ol the hall are found ;i number ol exhibits ol native 
krises, shields. Fabrics, basketr) and pottery. Pottery is |1()I highly 
developed in this area, but the textile arts Sourish to a remarkable 
degree. The industrial life of the Bagobo of Mindanao is particularly 
well-illustrated in the collections. 

Much more primitive in their culture than the other Malaysians are 
the Negritos, a dark-skinned and frizzly-haired pygm) stock forming, 
with like groups in other parts of the world, a distinct division of the 
Negro race. They are everywhere hunters, using the bow and arrow, 
and ignorant of agriculture. Their simple tools are shown in a table 
case in the farther section of the hall. 

The islands lying close to the coast of Asia have been subjected to 
several migrations and to varying cultural contacts. The present popula- 
tion is predominantly Malay in origin, members of the great Mongolian 
race. Their cultural arts include pottery, metal work and textile. The 
metal work is especially fine in the weapon-making of Java and among 
the Mohammedan inhabitants of the Philippines. Among the textiles 
are exhibited the batik work of Java, the tie-dyeing of the Bagobo in the 
Philippines, and fine textiles of Luzon. 

They possess fowls and pigs, grow rice, and use the carabao, or water 
buffalo, as a domestic aid in farming and transportation. Their form of 
the widespread Pacific canoe type usually has a double outrigger. Their 
weapons are blow-guns, bows and arrows, spears, and knives. In parts 
of Melanesia, head hunting w 7 as formerly practiced and formed a striking 
cultural feature in this area. 

Although the Malay culture has deeply influenced all the peoples 
of the area, influences from India and China have also been felt here; 
the former affecting thought and philosophy, and the latter furnishing, 
through commerce, cherished objects of art and use. More recently, 
Mohammedanism has entered the islands and has become the prevailing 
religion in some of them. About 300 years ago, Christianity and Euro- 
pean culture were first introduced by the Dutch and the Spaniards. 

Asiatic Ethnology 

At the entrance to this hall to the right is a section given to a brief 
exposition of the prehistory and early historic periods of Japan. The 
exhibits on the left side illustrate in the main the life of the Chinese at 
the turn of the century when the bulk of the collections was made, so 
that many of the objects shown here no longer have a function in 
Chinese life. Bamboo, porcelain, basketry, inlaid work, cloisonne enamel, 
lacquer, farming implements, carvings in wood, ivory and stone, costumes, 
and embroidery are shown to advantage. Several technological processes 
are shown in detail, such as cloisonne and the history of printing. 

ANTHROPOLOGY 197 




CHINESE BRONZES. A set of three bronze ornaments inlaid with silver from the 
Sung Dynasty, 960-1279 A.D. To the right is a bronze libation cup, probably used 
in religious ceremonies, from the Shang Dynasty, 1766-1122 B.C. 




CHINESE BRONZE BOWL. This larg 
bronze bowl has the original scroll 
design characteristic of the Chou 
Dynasty. Attributed to the Sung or 
Ming Dynasty. 



: 



A PAIR OF CHINESE BRONZE HORSES. They may have represented the horses of 
a chariot which has been lost. Ts In Dynasty. 




AN EXAMPLE OF CHINESE CLOISONNE ENAMEL 
FROM THE CHINESE COLLECTION OF THE MU- 
SEUM. 





A RELIGIOUS IMAGE, TIBET. The Victorious 
Goddess of the Ushnisha, a feminine divinity, 
known in Sanskrit as Ushnishavijaya and in 
Tibetan as gtsug-tor-rnam-par rgyal-ma. 



In the wall cases to the left of the entrance is a collection of ancient 
Chinese bronzes, and adjacent to the tower at the left is the Whitney 
collection of Lamaistic ritual objects from Tibet, supplemented by cos- 
tumes and household utensils used in daily life by the Tibetans. 

Next to these is a series of the Vedic and Puranic gods of India. 

The way of life of the island Asiatic peoples — Japan, Ainu, and 
Korea — is shown in the west end of the hall. Of particular interest are 
the two models of Japanese dwellings, an example of Japanese armor and 
Xo drama masks. 

Other peoples represented are some of the tribal groups such as the 
Meiteis and Maring of the Assam-Burma region and the Chin and Kachin 
of the Upper Chindwin River, Burma. 

The right side of the hall is occupied by the Chukchi, Koryak, Tungus, 
Yakut, Lamut, Yukaghir and Gold, all of whom live in Northeastern 
Siberia including the Kamchatka Peninsula. The Koryak, for example, 
are related in language to the Chukchi and Kamchadal, with whom they 
share many cultural attributes. Like the Chukchi, they are divided into 
a Reindeer and a Maritime branch, but differ from their neighbors in 
the almost exactly equal size of these divisions. The Reindeer Koryak 
live mainly on the flesh of their herds. The Maritime group depend 
largely on fishing, while the hunting of sea mammals is also important 
but relatively less so than among the Maritime Chuchi. The Reindeer 
people live in movable tents. The stationary, partly underground house 
of the Maritime division is illustrated by a model. Both divisions of the 
Koryak wear clothing made of reindeer skins. 



ANTHROPOLOGY 199 





IVORY CARVING OF A BOY AND REINDEER 
FROM THE YAKUT, EASTERN SIBERIA. 



KORYAK MAN IN ARMOR. 



Belore contact with other peoples, the Koryak had no metal and made 
all their implements by chipping stone. Several settlements were noted 
for their iron technique, which may antedate the coming of the Russians, 
since the Tungus and Yakut were both familiar with the blacksmith's art. 

The dressing of skins and the weaving of baskets by the coiled and 
twined methods are important industries. Remains brought to light by 
excavations of old dwellings show that the ancient Koryak knew how to 
manufacture pottery. The Koryak have attained a high degree of per- 
fection as carvers in wood, antler and ivory, and in the skillful handling 
of furs in the manufacture of their cloth. 



200 ANTHROPOLOGY 



Drummond Collection of Jade 

The famous DRUMMOND COLLECTION <>l carved Chinese jade, 
amber, Japanese ivory, and sword-guards is in the Southwest Towei on 
the fourth Moor, opening oui ol the South Sea Island Hall. I liis mag- 
nificent collection gathered 1>\ the late Dr. I. Wyman Drummond 
and presented to the Museum in his memory, is installed as a unit, 
largely according to Dr. Drummond's original arrangement. 

It is really a group of collections, each one of the greatest importance 
and beauty. The JADE COLLECTION alone is a rich and well balanced 
series, representative of all periods and covering a cultural range ol 
more than thirty centuries. The left hall of the room is devoted to jade 
arranged by periods, while the right half is given over to AMBER, 
IVORY, LACQUER, and BRONZE SWORD-GUARDS. The oriental 
amber displayed is the finest of its kind in the world. 

A unique composite piece of white jade, occupying the center of the 
room, was a birthday gift to the Emperor Kien Lung from the officials 
of his court. This assemblage of jade carvings consists of thirteen pieces 
fashioned from purest white jade and fitted together. Surrounding the 
central piece are twelve segments fitted together, each of which is carved 
with a representation of one of the twelve terrestrial branches correspond- 
ing to the signs of the zodiac. 

A very fine piece of white jade of the Kien Lung period of renaissance 
in glyptic art is in the form of a "Scepter of Good Luck" (Joo-i scepter). 
On the long handle of this piece are carved in high relief the figures 
ol the Eight Immortals, the half-mythical, half-historical personages so 
often represented in Taoist art. Each of these carries some characteristic 
object, such as the flute of Han Hsiang-tzu, whose marvelous tone caused 
flowers to grow and blossom instantly. 



AN EMPEROR'S BIRTHDAY GIFT. An assem- 
blage of elaborate carvings fashioned from 
purest white jade and fitted together. 






I WIH*lW*l*nttm<MfrraTrmHT^^ H, i * i , t 'r4 T p mn 




PICTOGRAPHS from Mangbettu carved camwood and ivory boxes. 

HMBnaannaaiiiiHiHiniiHHMiiiHiTOM 




IVORY HANDLED IRON WEAPONS OF THE MANGBETTU. The great sickle-shaped 
knives were worn over the shoulder by the king and other prominent men when 
they were sitting in council, partly as proof of the wearer's readiness to strike. 
At other times the knives were pushed under the belt. 








MASK. IBO, NIGERIA. 

African Ethnology 

The order in this hall is roughly geographical. Thus, as the visitor 
proceeds through the hall, he meets the tribes that would be found in 
passing from south to north in Africa. The West African peoples are 
represented along the left hand wall, the East African along the right 
hand wall, and the tribes of the Congo around the central rectangle. 

Nothing is more characteristic of the Negro culture than the art of 
smelting iron and making iron tools. The process used by the African 
blacksmith is shown in a group on the left at the entrance and the finished 
products, such as knives, axes and spears, are amply displayed through- 
out the hall. The knowledge of the iron technique distinguished the 
Negro culturally from the American Indian, the Oceanian and the 
Australian. 

A pictorial map indicates the various culture areas distinguished on 
the continent. Clothing is either of skin, bark cloth, or loom-woven plant 
fiber. The manufacture of a skin cloak is illustrated by one of the figures 



ANTHROPOLOGY 



203 



in the group to the left of the entrance. Bark cloths Erom Uganda are 
shown in the farthest right-hand section of the hall, while looms and 
the completed garments are on view in the large central rectangle given 
over to Congo ethnology. The most beautiful oi the last-mentioned 
products are t lie "pile cloths" oi the Bakuba, woven b\ the men and 
supplied with decorative patterns In the women. Very fine wooden gob- 
lets, fetish figures, masks, and espe< iall\ a series oi ivories from the Congo, 
bear witness to the high artistic sense and craftsmanship oi the African 
natives. I he importance oi musical accompaniment to their ritualistic 
dances is demonstrated b\ the great \aiiet\ oi musical instruments. 

A unique art is illustrated in the Benin case in the farther section 
of the hall where the visitor will see bronze and brass castings made b\ 
a process similar to that used in Europe in the Renaissance period. 

The religious beliefs of the natives are shown by numerous fetishes 
and charms, believed to give security in battle or to avert evils. Cere- 
monial masks are shown, which were worn in native rituals. 



204 ANTHROPOLOGY 



CONSERVATION AND 
GENERAL ECOLOGY 





Wherever you go on land or water you will find living things. Usually 
both plants and animals will be present, although the kinds will vary 
greatly from place to place. These natural assemblages of plants and 
animals that live together in the same area are spoken of as wildlife 
communities. Ecology is the branch of natural history that concerns itself 
with these wildlife communities. It seeks an understanding of (1) why 
they vary from region to region, (2) how they function, (3) how each 
species present has become specifically adapted to life in such a com- 
munity, (4) what the relation of each is to the other members of the 
community, and (5) what contribution each makes to the welfare of 
the whole. 

In any region local differences in slope, elevation and drainage, the 
character of the underlying rock or glacial deposit, and the varying 
impact of natural or man-induced "disasters", produce a series of different 
wildlife communities. However, the basic structure and organization of 
a wildlife community is everywhere the same. It must have, first of all, 
plants capable of locking up and storing some of the sun energy that 
falls on the area it occupies. 

To perform this task plants borrow from their environment carbon 
dioxide and water molecules, and, using these as raw materials, they 

205 



build sugar molecules in which some of the sun energy is locked up. 
This energ) is then used In plants to build other more complex plant 
substances in which are incorporated additional elements such as nitro- 
gen, phosphorous, sulphur, calcium and potassium. In time these become 

the tissue ol some pari ol the plant's structure or ol its seeds. 

These plant substances are the base which supports a community's 
animal life, as well as its parasitic and saprophytic plants. Saprophytic 
plants are those that l'eed on rotting wood and other dead organic matter. 
Buds, leaves, fruits, sap and the many other forms into which these 
plant materials are finally converted, serve as food lor a host ol different 
plant-eating — herbivorous — animals. As most herbivorous animals are 
rather specialized in their diet, the average community has places — or, 
as an ecologist would say, niches — for many such species. Through the 
process of digestion the various plant materials are absorbed into the 
bodies of animals, where they provide the organic building blocks from 
which animals fashion the tissues of their own bodies. Equally important 
is the energy that these plant substances make available to animals. 
All an animal has to do is to oxidize them, and the locked up sun energy 
is released. It is this energv that makes an active life possible for an 
animal and keeps it warm if it is warm-blooded. 

Few natural communities stop here. They have, in addition, a lesser 
number of flesh-eating — carnivorous — animals that differ from herbi- 
vores in that they obtain their food supply of plant-originated organic 
materials second-hand; in other words, rearranged into meat or fat. In 
fact, those carnivores that prey largely on other carnivores may be said 
to obtain their supply of sun energy and organic building blocks third- 
hand. In many of the more complex wildlife communities the steps are 
carried still further, and food chains with five, six or more links are not 
uncommon. However, it takes a lot of plant material to support one 
large animal at the end of a long food chain and a community never 
has many individuals of such a species. 

Man lives either by exploiting natural plant-animal communities 
for products he can use or by destroying them and substituting artificial 
communities that are more productive in terms of his specialized needs. 
The latter we call farming, and we either directly harvest the plants for 
human use or utilize tame herbivores like cows and chickens to harvest 
them and turn them into products we can use. Farmers regard most 
plant-eating wild animals as potential competitors. To keep their num- 
bers down to a minimum, wise farmers encourage predators like the 
insect-eating songbirds, moles and skunks, and the rodent-eating weasels. 
haw r ks and owls. If conflicts arise because chickens and other domestic 
animals are also attacked, it is often wiser to give such livestock better 
protection than to kill the offending carnivore and lose its help in hold- 
ing down crop-eating wild animals. 

Conservation is often called applied ecology, because we must first 
understand how plant-animal communities live and function if we are 

206 



to manage them wisely. It is therefore one of the chief tasks ol the 
Museum's Department of Conservation and General Ecology to make 

better known the natural laws to which man must conform il he wishes 
to exploit land or a natural community without impairing its Future 
productivity. 

As students of natural history we are also interested iu the preserva- 
tion of samples ol every wild plant-animal community that is native to 
this continent. Only if we are successful in this, will coming generations 

of naturalists have an opportunity to study and enjoy all the forms ol 
wildlife now native to North America. 

There are some plants and animals that cannot tolerate any distur- 
bance by man of the community of which they are a part, so we seek to 
have communities set aside as nature reserves, free from human inter- 
ference or management of any sort. Such areas have a very special value 
to students of natural history, as a wild plant or animal is only truly 
and wholly understandable in terms of its role as a functional unit or 
cog in the community of which it is an integral part. Its evolution 
through the centuries to its present form, possessed of certain specific 
habits and other attributes, took place in the setting provided by such 
a community. Here it is continually subjected to the normal impact 
of competition, predation, and the many other forces that operate within 
a community on every one of its members — influences that are essential 
to the continuing health of a species. 



FELIX M. WARBURG MEMORIAL HALL 

Here is dissected for you a typical rural area near New York City. 
We show you something of both its geological and glacial history and its 
more recent history under the impact of man. We show you its wildlife 
communities and some of the artificial ones with which man replaces 
them. Here you can see the history of man's attempt to exploit more 
fully the land and how 7 nature re-establishes wildlife communities when 
man, because of his failure to maintain soil fertility, abandons further 
attempts at cultivation. Here are samples of the area's soils, its bodies 
of water and woodland, and the cycles of life and decay within the com- 
munities that occupy them. You can see how differences in rocks and 
soils tend to produce different wildlife communities. In short, w r e help 
you to explore and understand the ecology of a typical landscape. 

AN OCTOBER AFTERNOON NEAR STISSING MOUNTAIN. Stis- 
sing Mountain, a hard mass of gneiss, is the most commanding topo- 
graphical feature in the Pine Plains' landscape. Here we see it in the glow- 
ing colors that are one of the outstanding characteristics of the deciduous 
— leaf-shedding — forest of Northeastern United States. Here, too, are a 
few of the animals that form an integral part of the community — the 
blue jay, red fox and dragon fly. 

CONSERVATION AND GENERAL ECOLOGY 207 



BIRD'S-EYE VIEW OF STISSIXG MOUNTAIN AND VILLAGE OF 
PINE PLAINS. This relief map shows you the Pine Plains area as it 
appears today. Its mosaic of fields and forests is typical of most agricul- 
tural communities in the glaciated Northeast. Local variations in such 
factors as slope, soil texture and depth, nature of underlying rock and 
proximity of water table, underlie such a pattern and are the subject 
matter of the Hall. 

GEOLOGICAL HISTORY AND STRUCTURE. Pine Plains' present 
mountains and valleys are the end product of many millions of years 
of weathering, rock formation and re-weathering, and earth movements 
that have folded and fractured, submerged and elevated. Here are dis- 
played the various rocks that are now exposed at the surface and some- 
thing of the forms of life that lived here when these rocks were being 
formed. 

GLACIATION. Recently — geologically speaking — a great mass of ice 
flowed down from the north over this area. As it moved, it scoured away 
the soils and smoothed the rocky ridges. Some rock fragments were carried 
as great boulders; others were ground to claylike fineness. Then, some 
10,000 years ago, the ice melted, leaving behind a rolling landscape of 
hills and marshes, ponds and lakes. Because of the glacier we have 
pockets of clay soil in one place, stony ones in another, and little or 
none on the exposed ridges. 

THE WATER CYCLE. The course that rain water takes after it falls 
is indicated in a cross-section model of a typical rural landscape. The 
relation of wells, springs and flowing streams to the underground zone 
of saturation is indicated. Its upper level — the water table — is seen 
to vary with both topography and the nature of the underlying sub-strata. 
The sloping land on the right has been subjected to water erosion due to 
improper farming and will no longer yield a living for the owner. 



STISSING MOUNTAIN SCENE. A landscape is a mosaic of distinctive plant-animal 
community units. 





LANDSCAPE CROSS-SECTION. Water running downhill creates problems above 
ground, but is an asset below. 



SOILS AND SOIL CONSERVATION. Weathered rock minerals, 
glacial debris and water-laid beds of sand and clay provided the raw 
materials for the area's soils. As these leached and plant remains became 
mixed with their surface layers, soil was formed. Because of their diverse 
origins, sandy and clayey soils, or that ideal intermediary, loam soil, 
all occur within relatively small areas at Pine Plains. 

LIFE IN THE SOIL. Beneath our feet lies a subterranean world that 
teems with life. Here many insects spend part of their lives. Earthworms 
and hundreds of smaller animals feed on plant and animal remains, 
converting them into humus. Moles literally swim through the soil with 
the help of their powerful feet, leaving tunnels that provide runways and 
homes for chipmunks, mice, toads and insects. 

ROOTS IN THE SOILS. The parts of a plant that occupy the soil are 
no less important than those that reach upward into the air. Here you 
see an enlarged feeding root and its absorbing root hairs. A magnified 
soil section shows such a hair creeping through the air and soil solution 
that occupies the spaces between the soil granules. 

THE RELATION OF PLANTS TO GEOLOGY AND SOIL. In 

glaciated areas like Pine Plains much of the underlying rock is covered 
by deposits of rock debris that may have been carried many miles by the 
glacier. Soils derived from such material show no correlation with the 
underlying rock. On the higher areas such soil as may once have covered 
the rocks was scraped away. Now, with the passing of the glacier, 
weathering is slowly creating raw materials that pioneering plants are 
turning into soil. Immature soils of this sort vary greatly, as thev are 
strongly influenced by the rock from which they have been derived. 

CONSERVATION AND GENERAL ECOLOGY 209 




BELOW GROUND VIEW IN WINTER. The hibernating chipmunk sleeps out the 
winter, but the deer mouse must forage nightly for food. 

Usually, only a lew plants are adapted for life in a given soil of this 
sort and they serve as indicators of its presence. Here are samples of 
four such soils derived from four of the area's rock formations, together 
with a few of their plants. We also see two lowland areas where an 
excess of lime has created what are for this region most unusual en- 
vironments. 

ROTATION OF FARM CROPS IN DUTCHESS COUNTY, N. Y. 
Here are dioramas showing the appearance of the local crop-land in early 
June, mid-July and early October. Here, also, are samples of some of 
the commoner cultivated grasses — wheat, oats, rye, barley and timothy — 
and various stages in the development of bean and pumpkin plants. 
By changing from year to year the type of crop that is grown, the humus 
content and fertility of the soil can be better maintained. 



210 



LTMFSTONE 




LIME LOVING PLANTS. Weathering limestone counteracts organic acids and pro- 
duces the neutral soil needed by these orchids and other plants. 



THE APPLE ORCHARD IN DUTCHESS COUNTY, X. V. Apples are 
the most important tree crop of Dutchess County. Here we see an orchard 
in bloom, during the spraying of trees, and finally at harvest time. En- 
larged models show the steps in the fertilization of the blossoms by bees 
and in the life history of the Codling Moth that causes so many apples 
to be "wormy." Spraying to kill insect pests means the destruction of 
both beneficial and harmful forms. After spraying, honey bees are often 
placed in orchards to compensate for the loss of pollinating insects. 

FERTILIZERS IN THE SOIL. Here two sods demonstrate the dif- 
ference that the application of needed fertilizers can make in the growth 
of pasture grasses. A model shows the appearance of the root of a legume 
(member of the Pea Family) with its nodules containing bacteria that 

CONSERVATION AND GENERAL ECOLOGY 211 



convert atmospheric nitrogen into a form usable by plants. As other 
nutrient elements, if lacking, musi come from fertilizers, some of their 
common souk es are indie ated. 

CYCLE OF NUTR1 1 ION AM) DECAY. This exhibit deals with photo- 
synthesis and the < in ulation within a (onnnunitx of the inorganic 
nutrient elements that plants use us raw material in the manufacture of 
organii substances. It points out how first plants and then animals use 
these substances both as a source ol energy and as building blocks for 
the construction oi then own bodies. Ultimately, all organic materials 
are oxidized and their stored energ) released. With this last step all the 
locked-up elements are freed and again available to plants to start the 
process over. Only the stored sun energ) is lost, and as long as the sun 
shines a fresh supply of this is always at hand. 

LIFE IN THE WATER. The cycling of nutrients in an aquatic environ- 
ment follows the same pattern as on land. Here the most important 
plants are minute, often one-celled algae that cloud sunlit fertile waters 
with a green haze. Feeding on these plants are myriads of small animals 
like the abundant water Ilea. These in turn are consumed by small fish 
that soon become the food of larger ones. As on land, scavengers and 
bacteria finish the cycle and restore to the water the nutrient elements 
that were originally used by the algae. 

CYCLE ON NUTRITION AND DECAY. Only sun-energy is used up in nature's cycles 
of life and death. 



^^ 






PHOTOSYNTHESIS BNO RESPIRATION 




POND PREDATORS. A series of pro- 
gressively larger predators forms an 
important part of the cycle of life 
in any environment. 




FROM FIELD TO LAKE. In a glacial area like Pine Plains the surface 
of the ground is very uneven. In many instances the top of the water 
table may be above the surface, creating a pond or stream, or close to the 
surface, creating a marsh. The roots of land plants cannot function in 
saturated soil and are therefore confined to the zone above the water 
table. Here we observe what a difference a few inches in elevation or in 
soil texture can make in the character of the plant-animal community 
that occupies the site. From left to right in this group we see: 

1. A field with enough soil depth to raise corn, also a few crows that 
are more likely to be seeking grubs than pulling corn. 

2. A running trout-brook fed by cool underground water that slowly 
seeps horizontally through the soil from points where the water table is 
higher than the level of the brook. 

3. A sedge meadow, bordered by shrubs, where dead plant material, 
protected from oxidation by the high water table, is accumulating to 
form a pocket of organic, muck soil. Here we see the shrub-dwelling 
yellow-throat. 

4. A red maple swamp growing on a muck pocket, with a ground cover 
of skunk cabbage and cinnamon fern. The box turtle and red eft are 
common inhabitants of moist woodlands. 



CONSERVATION AND GENERAL ECOLOGY 213 



5. A ridge ol coarse glacial material <>nl\ deep enough for trees like 
papei birch, chestnul oak and hemlock, thai are adapted to a thin soil 
layei . 

(>. A pond border where the ground is (lose enough to the surface foi 
such emergent aquatic vegetation as cattails, and where muskrats, Vir- 
ginia tails and bullfrogs are at home. 

7. A shallow pond where catfish, yellow perch and pickerel thrive in 
the warm water and a painted turtle suns itsell among yellow watei 

lilies. 

SEASONS IN THE LAKE. Four lake cross-sections indicate the tem- 
perature variations that occur within a body of water throughout the 
year. Water reaches its maximum density at 39° Fahrenheit. The effect 
this has on the circulation and oxygen content at various levels is 

indicated. 

SEASONS IN THE WOODS. The progression of the seasons brings 
much more marked changes in a deciduous — leaf-shedding — than an 
evergreen woodland. In the spring the sunshine reaches the forest flooi 
in almost its full strength. Many of the small plants of the forest bloom, 
produce a year's store of food, and ripen their seed in the short interval 
before the trees put on their leaves. Others, like the goldenrod and aster, 
grow slowly all summer on the small amount of light that filters through 
the canopy, and in the fall, as the leaves begin to drop, they burst into 
sudden activity, blooming and forming seed in the matter of a few 
weeks. The activities of woodland animals also change with the seasons 
and many of the birds are only summer members of the community. 

THE CHANGING FORESTS. For each of the earth's climates there 
is often one community that is more stable than any other. It is 
called the climax communitv. At Pine Plains it is a deciduous forest 
community with more or less hemlock mixed through it. Local sites 
occupied at present by other communities tend to evolve towards this 
climax community if not disturbed. In the foreground of the exhibit we 
see an abandoned field in an early stage of a progression back to forest. 
On different sites the early stages of the succession of communities that 
leads ultimately to forest may vary greatly, as indicated in the small 
dioramas. The complete suppression of forest reproduction that results 
when cattle are allowed in a woodland is also shown. 

MAX AM) THE LAND. Here are five panels showing important 
phases in the land-use history of the Pine Plains area: (1) The extensive 
forest broken only here and there by small Algonquin Indian settle- 
ments, Indians who practiced a primitive agriculture in order to supple- 
ment the wildlife they harvested from the forest. (2) In the 1700's the 
white settlers began to move in and clear awa\ the forest to make fields. 
(3) The soil, rich with the humus that had accumulated for centuries 

214 



under the Forest, grew bountiful crops foi over ;i century. (4) K\ the 
1880's the failure to replace humus and the nutrient elements shipped 
away in i lie* crops, led to soil erosion, exhaustion of fertility, and abandon' 
ment. (5) Today we see the area in a new <\<lc of argiculture based on 
the extensive use of soil-building, erosion-preventing grasses and otlua 
forage crops supplied with the nutrient elements they need by the propei 
use of commercial fertilizers. The common agricultural tools of each 
period are shown in miniature. 

RECORDS OF TIME. Here you see some of the methods that enable 
ns to read the history of a landscape. Small ponds left by the melting 
of ice blocks gradually fill with plant remains in which are trapped 
wind-blown pollens. Protected from oxidation by water, this material 
gradually turns into layer alter layer of peat. Spruce pollen in a peat 
layer bespeaks a cool, wet climate, while oak pollen indicates a warm, 
dry climatic interval. 

Glacial waters are loaded with clay-forming rock flour. In quiet lakes 
this settles to the bottom. Seasonal variations in the character of the 
sediment enables us to distinguish each year's deposit. Thus, we can 
determine how long it took the glacial ice to disappear completely from 
the area. 

NORTH AMERICAN FORESTS 

A forest is far more than just an assemblage of trees. In this Hall we 
deal with forests as complete plant-animal communities. Because of local 
variations in such factors as slope, soil and moisture, a forest landscape 
wall generally contain examples of more than one type of forest com- 
munity. Each community will be dominated by tree species that have 
become especially adapted for life on a particular site. These dominant 
trees set the stage, as it were, for a host of smaller associated plants and 
a vast complex of animals that are supported by the over-all plant 
community. 

Some types of forest communities are sharply separated from neigh- 
boring ones. More often, one type will merge into another over a broad 
transition area. In such transition zones the abundance or frequency 
of occurrence of certain trees will increase, while others decrease. Trees 
that may be dominant in one community will often persist in small 
numbers in an adjacent one. 

The normal or characteristic forest of a region is the relatively stable, 
mature forest — capable of reproducing itself for generations on the same 
ground — that occupies the most favorable sites of the area, sites that 
provide deep, moist but well drained, fertile soil where wind and other 
climatic factors are normal. 

The Hall of Forests will contain dioramas showing ten regional 
groups of forest communities. Many will portray not only the typical 
forest community of the most favorable sites, but one or more of the 

CONSERVATION AND GENERAL ECOLOGY 215 



associated t\j)cs thai occur on dryer, wettei oi otherwise less favorable 
anas For tree growth. The hall will also contain displays that will 
acquaint you with such topics as — 

1. The characteristic soil and soil life ol various Forest communities. 

2. The wildflowers and other minor plants characteristic of different 
Forests. 

3. The Forest animals and the food chains that link them to the plant 
community. 

4. The value of forests to man and how Forests should be treated. 

5. How Forests reproduce themselves. 

At the entrance of the Hall you see a large 16 loot cross-section of a 
1340-year-old Big Tree from the King's River sequoia grove on the west 

flank of the Sierra Mountains of California; also a smaller cross-section 
ol a redwood log from the Coast Range of California. 

Three of the dioramas are now on display: 

The SUGAR MAPLE GROUP sbows a scene in early spring on a Farm 
in Black Dome Valley in the Catskill Mountains ol New York. In the 
foreground is a sugar house where sap from the tapped maples is being 
boiled down to syrup. In the background you see the north flank ol 
Blackhead Mountain covered with a Northern Hardwood Forest in which 
sugar maple, beech, yellow birch and hemlock are the dominant trees. 
In the valley the cutting of hemlock for tan bark and ol I eech and 
birch for fuel has converted this forest into an almost pure stand 
of sugar maple. 

The WHITE PIXE-HEMLOCK-XORTHERX HARDWOODS 
FOREST GROUP is located near Lake Sunapee. X. H. Here we see a 
slope where lumbering, fire or a storm destroyed the' Forest 100 or so 
years ago, leaving the site open and sunny enough for seedlings of white 
pine and the very shade-intolerant red pine to thrive. Xow we see these 
pines maturing and the shade-tolerant hardwoods — beech, sugar maple, 
yellow birch — and hemlock coming in to re-establish the stable regional 
forest tvpe. 

The SOUTHERX HARDWOODS FOREST GROUP is located on 
the edge of a cove-like bench at about 3500 feet elevation on the Ten- 
nessee side of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park in the Southern 
Appalachians. In the group we see a sweet buckeye, a tulip tree, a white 
basswood and a silver bell tree. The time is late April, and dogwood. 
Frazier's magnolia and silver bell are in bloom and the ground is carpeted 
with wildflowers. This area appears to have been continuously occupied 
by a forest community for the past sixty million years. It is one of the 
world's richest forests in species, as some 130 trees occur within the 
park and some two do/en now reach their maximum size here. 

216 CONSERVATION AND GENERAL ECOLOGY 



POPULAR 
VERSUS 
SCIENTIFIC 
WORDS 



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Every task of man has its own special words. Doctors, sailors, lawyers, 
shoemakers, scientists, cooks and cattlemen — all have their own word 
lists that they use in their work. Our trouble is that we cannot be familiar 
with all of these occupations and their special words. 

Living languages grow and change in meaning with daily use. For 
example, take two English words, PREVENT and LET. PREVENT 
used to mean KNOW IN ADVANCE. "He prevented her every wish" 
did not mean that she didn't get what she wanted. It meant that he 
could tell beforehand what she wanted. Today, PREVENT means 
STOP SOMETHING BEFORE IT HAPPENS. 

LET used to mean STOP. In Shakespeare's time a man might say, 
"Let me not!" meaning "Stop me not!" But todav, LET means PERMIT 
or ALLOW. 

Common names also change with locality. Every species of animal 
may have scores, if not hundreds, of local names. Even the same name 
may not mean the same thing in different regions that speak the same 
language. The WHITING of England is not found in America, but the 
HAKE of England is the WHITING of New England, while the HAKE 
of Delaware Bay is a totally different fish that has nothing to do with the 
other two. Again, the English LING and the LING of New Jersey are 
different fishes. 

It is plain, then, that scientists must have an international language. 
The solution has been to make up a word list from one or two "dead" 
languages that will not grow and change as time goes by. Sometimes 
words from other languages may be employed. Sanskrit and Hebrew 
would have served, but earlv scientists knew Greek and Latin better. 



217 



To avoid confusion, scientific nanus are given to animals and plants. 
All scientists will know these names. On) domestic dog is "dog" in 
English, "hund" in German, "hond" in Dutch, "chien" in Fundi, "perro" 
in Spanish and "(fio" in Portuguese. But all scientists — American, Eng- 
lish, German, Dutch, French, Spanish or Portuguese - will know that 
CAMS FAMILIARIS is a dog in any dialect. 

I he .Museum \isitoi m;i\ be surprised to find, alter reading a label, 
that alter each eonnnon name ol an animal there are two words in a 
Foreign language — usually Latin and (.xck in combination. For in- 
stance, alter Robin, you will find TURDUS MIGRATORIUS; alt, i 
Herring, CLUP1 A HARENGUS. Every known animal has been given 
scientific names whether it has a eonnnon name or not. 

But why TWO scientific names? I he two names have two functions. 
The Black Duck is ANAS RUBRIPES. ANAS is the generic name - it 
indicates relationship. Every surface-feeding duck is ANAS, as the 
Mallard, ANAS PLATYRHYNCOS; the Pintail, ANAS ACUTA; the 
Teal, ANAS CRECCA. The second name, beginning always with a small 
letter to set it off, is unique. It specifies the particular species. It is the 
specific name. 

To apply the same system to human names, let's take John Smith. 
The scientist reverses his name thus — SMITH JOHN. SMITH is his 
generic or relationship name. All members of his family will be named 
SMITH. But when we add JOHN to his relationship name we now have 
a specific name, a unique name. SMITH JOHN cannot be confused 
with SMITH PETER, SMITH BILL or SMITH CHARLES. 

In addition to using Latin and Greek names, scientists also use short- 
cut descriptive words. It is harder to write simple language than it is 
to write scientific language. It also takes more words and more space. 
Scientists compress their words to save time and space. 

Let us take PROGNATHOUS as an example. We may say that one 
type of primitive man was prognathous. PROGNATHOUS is a descrip- 
tive word made up of Latin and Greek words. PRO- is a prefix meaning 
BEFORE or FORWARD. GNATHOS is a Greek word meaning [AW. 
The suffix -OUS means HAVING THE QUALITY OR PRESENCE 
OF SOMETHING. Therefore, PROGNATHOUS, part by part, means 
FORWARD- JAW -PRESENCE or, more simply, HAVING A JAW 7 
THAT STICKS OUT. PROGNATHOUS is a time-saving, short-cut 
w r ord. But it takes many words to explain what it means. 

We have gone around the fifty-eight halls of the Museum, reading 
labels. We have picked out words that we thought were least familiar to 
everyone. If you are reading a label and come across a word like PROG- 
NATHOUS or PECTORAL, you can find what it means in the word 
list below. If you find words not on our list that you think ought to be 
there, please note them and pass them on to any Information Desk. Your 
suggestion will be given to the right people. 

218 



THE WORD LIST 

ABERRANT, straying From the usual course; differing from the type 
of its group. 

ALBINO, ;i person, animal, or plant lacking normal coloring matter. 

ALLUVIAL, pertaining to formations deposited 1>\ rivers or Hoods. 

Alluvia] plains arc the Hood plains of rivers. 

ARBOREAL, living or situated among trees. 

ARCHAEOLOGY, the systematic study of man. his relics, remains and 
records. 

AVIFAUNA, the birds of a given region. 

BOREAL, northern. 

CALCAREOUS, composed of, or containing, limestone or calcium car- 
bonate. A clam shell is calcareous. 

CARNIVORE, a meat-eater. A lion is a carnivore. 

CELT, an ancient tool or weapon of stone, shaped like an axe. 

CERAMIC, pertaining to pottery. 

CRUSTACEAN, a lobster, crab, crawfish or shrimp is a crustacean. 

CULM, stem or stalk, as of grasses. 

CULTURE, the sum total of everything a group is, does, has, and 
believes in. 

DECOCTION, the liquid produced by boiling a substance. 

DETRITUS, loose fragments or particles of rock. 

DIURNAL, active during the day. The eagle and the sparrow are 
diurnal birds. 

DORSAL, pertaining to, or placed on or near, the back. 

EFFIGY, a figure or image representing the whole or part of a person. 

ENVIRONMENT, one's surroundings. 

EPIPHYTIC, growing on the outside of another plant, mostly on trees. 

EVERTED, turned backward or outward. 

EVOLUTION, a succession of changes by which the forms of organisms 
are modified, usually from the simple to the complex. 

FAUNA, all the animals living in a given area. 

FLORA, all plant life growing without cultivation in a given area. 

POPULAR VERSUS SCIENTIFIC WORDS 219 



GR WIINIVORF. a grass-eater. A horse is a graminivore. 

GREGARIOUS, living in Hocks, herds or communities. Pigeons, cows 
and nun are gregai ions. 

HERBIVORE, feeding on herbs 01 other vegetable matter. 

HIBERNATION, passing the winter in a secluded place, in sleep 01 
near-sleep. 

HIEROGLYPHIC, picture-writing in which the figures of objects take 
the place ol signs or letters. 

[NS1 CTIVORE, insect-eater. 

INTRUSION, the forcing of masses of molten rock into or between othei 

rocks; a mass of such rock. 

INVERTEBRATE, an animal without a backbone. 

LATERAL, pertaining to. or placed near, the side. 

LEGUMINOUS, related to the pea family. 

MELANISTIC, excessive darkness of the eyes, hair, fur, or skin, due 
to deposits of pigment; the opposite of albinistic. 

METALLURGY, the art or science of extracting metal from its ore. 

METAMORPHOSIS, a change injorm, structure and function resulting 
in development; the changes that occur from the larva and pupa to 
the fully developed insect. 

NOCTURNAL, active after dark. The owl is a nocturnal bird. 

OCCIPITAL, pertaining to the lower back part of the head. 

PARASITIC, living on or in another organism and getting nourishment 
from it. 

PECTORAL, pertaining to the breast. 

PEDICELS, stalks or supporting parts. 

PHYSIOGRAPHY, physical geography, dealing in description rather 
than in theory or explanation. 

PREDATORY, preying on other animals. 

PREHENSILE, formed to grasp or coil around, as the tail of a monkey. 

PRIMEVAL, belonging to the first ages; ancient. 

PROBOSCIS, a long, flexible snout, as the trunk of an elephant. 

PROGNATHOUS, having a jaw that sticks out. 

220 POPULAR VERSUS SCIENTIFIC WORDS 



RUMINANT, an animal lliat (hews the cud. as deei 01 COWS. 

SAPRorm lie. living on dead organ i< matter. 

SCANDENT, climbing or aiding to climb. 

SEDIMENTARY, formed originally l>\ material deposited In water 
or air. 

SESSILE, fixed to Or attached. 

SHERDS, fragments of pottery. 

STELA, an upright slab or tablet of stone. 

STRATIGRAPHY, the order and relative position of the layers of the 

earth's crust. 

TERRESTRIAL, pertaining to the earth. 
TUNDRA, the treeless plains found in the arctic regions. 
VENTRAL, pertaining to, or placed on or near, the abdomen. 
VERTEBRATE, an animal with a backbone. 



221 



The Mnsviun Shop 



Make your visit to the Museum still more memorable l>\ \isiiin<j, the Museum 
Shop. It is one of the largest and most interesting museum shops in the world. 
Here, in several departments, you will find not onl) books, cuds and souvenirs, 
but a wick' assortment of merchandise of unusual interest that is seldom 
available elsewhere. 

RARE AND EXOTIC GIFTS. Alert shoppers are rapidl) "discovering" tin's 
unique, exciting source for gifts of special character. Original African wood 

carvings, handsome reproductions of actual Museum specimens, unusual 
jewelry, authentically-costumed dolls of all nations, fine native crafts of all 
kinds — these are only a lew of the distinctive items to be found there. Many 
articles are the only ones of their kind, many are handsome decorators' items, 
and all are of a character not found in ordinary shops. 

SOUVENIRS. Many interesting mementos of your Museum visit will be 
found such as models of prehistoric and present day animals in glass, plastic 
and metal, novel paper weights, beautiful full-color photographs of Museum 
exhibits, special natural history records of bird songs, native dances, etc. For 
children there are toys, games, arrow heads, shark teeth, sea horses, bird 
pictures, and numerous other inexpensive articles intriguing to youngsters. 

SHELLS, MINERALS, INSECTS. The Museum Shop offers an outstanding 
collection of mineral specimens, semi-precious stones, sea shells from all parts 
of the world, and mounted butterflies and other insects for the amateur 
collector. These are available singly or in ready-made collections. 

PUBLICATIONS. A large library of books and pamphlets is available for 
your examination and purchase. These cover the field of natural history from 
anthropology to zoology, for both the amateur and advanced naturalist. 



The Museum Shop is located on the first floor in the 77th Street Entrance Hall. 



The Planetarium Shop 



In the American Museum-Hayden Planetarium you will find a shop catering 
to the interests of both young and old in astronomy. Hourglasses, barometers, 
meteorites, star finders, zodiac cards, small microscopes and souvenirs of many 
kinds are among the objects on sale. It is also an excellent source for books on 
the sun, moon and stars, on weather, space travel, life on other planets, tele- 
scope making, and other subjects in the field of astronomy. 




Natural History Magazine 

The American Museum of Natural History publishes one of the world's most 
distinctive and distinguished magazines, NATURAL HISTORY. In it 
eminent writers, scientists and explorers present in highly readable fashion 
the inside story of their research, travels, investigation and discoveries. From 
the floor of the oceans to the outermost stars of the galaxy, from the dim begin- 
nings of life on prehistoric shores to the probable nature of life in the world 
of tomorrow — such is the reader's range of vision in a publication devoted at 
all times to truth and to the better understanding by man of the world in 
which he lives. 

NATURAL HISTORY Magazine is filled with unusual photographs, maps 
and drawings. The handsome, full-color covers portraying natural history 
subjects of rare beauty and interest are prized by every subscriber. The sub- 
scription price of S5 a year enrolls you as an Associate Member of the Museum. 
You receive a Membership Card. Membership Certificate, and other desirable 
benefits in addition to a year's subscription to NATURAL HISTORY 
Magazine. 

The Museum also publishes JUNIOR Natural History Magazine for young 
people between 8 and 14 years of age. This highly informative and entertain- 
ing publication is read avidly by both boys and girls and is valued by all 
adults who wish to see young people receive the right introduction to the 
infinite variety and inspiration of the world of nature. A year's subscription 
costs only $1.50. 




THE 

AMERICAN 

MUSEUM 

OF 

NATURAL 

HISTORY 








fci 














invitation 



You are cordinally invited to enjo) the privileges and benefits 
of membership in the AMERICAN MUSE1 M OI N A I URAL 
HISTORY. 

Your Museum is a powerful cultural influence in the nation, 
an invaluable asset to science and education, and a rewarding 
personal experience for all who wish to assist in its work by 
becoming Members. Your own participation is welcomed in any 
of the following Classes of Membership you choose. 

MEMBERSHIP CLASSES 

LIFE MEMBERSHIP — Benefits 1 through 10 $300 

SUPPORTING MEMBERSHIP — Benefits 1 through 9 $100 a year 

CONTRIBUTING MEMBERSHIP — Benefits 1 through 9. . . $ 50 a year 

SUSTAINING MEMBERSHIP — Benefits 1 through 9 $ 25 a year 

ANNUAL MEMBERSHIP — Benefits 1 through 7 plus 8 or 9 $ 15 a year 

ASSOCIATE MEMBERSHIP — Benefits 1 through 6 $ 5 a year 





Interested people in all parts of the world find that distance is no barrier to 
their enjoyment of Associate Membership status and benefits in the American 
Museum of Natural History. Residents of the Greater New York area find the 
Annual and Sustaining Memberships especially rewarding. 

MEMBERSHIP BENEFITS 

1. Membership Card for purse or wallet. 

2. Membership Certificate suitable for framing. 

3. Admission to Members' Room. 

4. Subscription to NATURAL HISTORY Magazine, the Museum's unique 
and beautiful magazine, treasured by members as one of the most distinctive 
and interesting publications in the nation. 

5. Ten per cent reduction on books purchased from the Museum Shop. 

6. President's Annual Report on request. 

7. Two admissions to Hayden Planetarium. 

8. Admission for the Member and a guest to the Members' Lecture Series (10 
or more annually). This Series brings to the Members the nation's foremost 
lecturers on natural history subjects. They present full-length natural color 
motion pictures of extraordinary beauty and interest. The lecture evenings 
are pleasant, relaxed social occasions at which the Members enjoy coffee, music, 
comfortable lounge chairs, and the opportunity of talking with well-known 
authors and scientists. They bring to all present rare and memorable insights 
into the infinite variety of nature. (At prevailing admission prices for pro- 
grams of equal merit, this Series would cost at least §30.) 

9. Admission for the Member and two guests to Adventure Series (10 or more 
illustrated lectures annually). These Saturday morning lectures are of the 
same high calibre as the Members' Lecture Series. While they are presented 
especially for the children of Members, adults find them equally worthwhile. 
The Adventure Series has long been cherished by Members who value for their 
children a sound, constructive, stimulating introduction to the wonders of the 
world in which they live. (This Series, also, would cost at least $30.00 at single 
admission prices to lectures of similar merit elsewhere.) 

10. Admission to Staff Functions arranged for higher class Members. 






To obtain your Membership Card, ask any Museum attendant to direct 
you to the office of the Membership Secretary. Or write to Membership 
Secretary, American Museum of Natural History, New York 24, New York. 




The 



museum 



is not 

four walls 

surrounding a 

cloistered 

lite; 

it is the 

heart of a 

system, 

circulating 

throughout 



world.' 



DK ALBERT E. PARU, 



Director 



THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 












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